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PET PowerPoint Presentation

PET

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PET

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  1. PET

  2. PET- POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY • NONINVASIVE NUCLEAR IMAGING TECHNIQUE THAT INVOLVES THE ADMINISTRATION OF A RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL AND SUBSEQUENT IMAGING OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND KINETICS OF THE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL.

  3. PET IS A PHYSIOLOGIC MODALITY • IS PREDOMINANTLY USED TO MEASURE HUMAN CELLULAR, ORGAN, OR SYSTEM FUNCTION.

  4. PHYSIOLOGIC ASPECT OF THE TISSUE UNDER STUDY • IS DETERMINED FROM THE MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIOACTIVITY EMITTED BY A RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL IN THAT TISSUE.

  5. POSITRON EMITTING RADIONUCLIDES • 11C - CARBON • 13N - NITROGEN • 15O - OXYGEN • 18F – FLUORINE

  6. HISTORY OF PET • THE USE OF POSITRON EMITTING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS FOR MEDICAL PURPOSE WAS FIRST CONCEIVED IN THE EARLY 1930s BY E.O. LAWRENCE- THE INVENTOR OF CYCLOTRON.

  7. E.O. LAWRENCE

  8. COMPOUNDS WITH POSITRON EMITTING REDIONUCLIDES WERE SYNTHESIZED AND GEIGER COUNTERS WOULD BE USED TO MEASURE THE UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE BY DIFFERENT BODY PARTS.

  9. F.W. WRENN SHOWED THE USE OF POSITRON EMITTING RADIONUCLIDES FOR LOCALIZATION OF BRAIN TUMORS IN 1951.

  10. IN 1967 G. HOUNSFIELD DEMONSTRATED THE CLINICAL USE OF CT. THE MATHEMATICS OF IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION AND PET ARE SIMILAR.

  11. IN 1975 THE FIRST CLOSED- RING TRANSVERSE POSITRON TOMOGRAPH WAS BUILTFOR PET IMAGING BY M.M. TER-POGOSSIAN.

  12. SINCE 1975: • BETTER RESOLUTION IN PET IS BEING ACHIEVED NEARING 1-2 MM • NEW RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL AGENTS ARE BEING DEVELOPED TO STUDY: BLOOD FLOW, METABOLISM, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, LIPID CONTET, RECEPTOR BINDING AND MANY OTHER.

  13. DETECTOR TYPES: SCINTILLATION- BETTER RESOLUTION S. CRYSTAL S. CRYSTAL PHOTODIODE PM TUBE

  14. POSITRON • Atomic particle with properties identical to those of a negatively charged electron, except for its positive charge. The positron is the antiparticle of the electron. Positrons and electrons annihilate one another when they meet, producing pure energy in the form of gamma rays

  15. PET • PAIR PRODUCTION INTERACTION IS UTILIZED!!

  16. Pair Production (PP) can occur when the x-ray photon energy is greater than 1.02 MeV, when an electron and positron are created with the annihilation of the x-ray photon. Positrons are very short lived and disappear (positron annihilation) with the formation of two photons of 0.51 MeV energy. Pair production is of particular importance when high-energy photons pass through materials of a high atomic number. Energy: > 1.02 MeV

  17. When we talk about the beta plus decay a proton decays into a neutron, a positron (the antiparticle of the electron) and a neutrino. The positron and the neutrino are emited. The radioactive particle is the positron

  18. DATA ACQUSITION IN: • CT • MRI • PET

  19. CT

  20. MRI

  21. PET 800 DETECTORS

  22. RESOLUTION OF IMAGES • CT –512 X 512 • MRI 512 X 512 • PET – 64 X 64

  23. COMPARISON

  24. PRODUCTION OF POSITRON EMITTERS • CYCLOTRON METHOD • MILKING OF RADIONUCLIDE GENERATOR

  25. CYCLOTRON

  26. BOMBARDMENT OF STABLE NUCLEI WITH HIGH ENERGY BEAMS OF CHARGED PARTICLES.

  27. MILKING OF RADIONUCLIDE GENERATOR

  28. PET SCANNER

  29. GANTRY AND DETECTORS

  30. CLINICAL APPLICATIONSBRAIN: • DEMENTIAS • COMPLEX PARTIAL EPILEPSY • STROKE • TUMORS

  31. DEMENTIAS- ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE BILATERAL HYPOMETABOLISM APPEARS IN PARIETAL AND TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION AREAS

  32. EPILEPSY SHOW FOCI

  33. STROKE

  34. METASTATIC TUMOR

  35. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF PETHEART • CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

  36. CAD

  37. FUSION OF PET AND CT

  38. FUSION OF PET AND CT