Response to Intervention (RtI) at the Secondary Level: Keys to Implementation Madi Phillips, Ph.D. NCSP I-ASPIRE Regional Coordinator
Big Ideas about Today’s Presentation • We’re aligning a delivery system to educational needs. • We’re increasing the quality of teaching, tools, and support across 3-Tiers instead of moving the problem. • We’re shifting mind sets: Every problem learning (or behaving) becomes a special education problem. • In a perfect world, we shouldn’t have “RtI” (as an eligibility process) at the secondary level. • We’re shifting “Interventions” focus from reactive, punitive, and/or restrictive to proactive, preventative, inclusive. • We have the tools and we have experience, but there is a gap.
Without Problem Solving Special Education Sea of Ineligibility General Education
Student Profiles • 8.7 million 4th-12th graders can’t cope with academic demands • 74% of all 9th graders scored at Unsatisfactory or Basic Level on state assessment • Unsatisfactory = 3%ile WR; 1%ile RC • Basic=9%ile WR; 8%ile RC • 70% of adolescents graduate; 50% of students with color do • Students who stay “on track” in freshman year (earn 5 credits and no more than 1 F) 3.5 times as likely to graduate
Student Profiles (cont) • “On-track Indicator” • Students who stay “on track” in freshman year (earn 5 credits and no more than 1 F) 3.5 times as likely to graduate • One semester F decreases likelihood of graduating from 83% to 60% • 2 Fs decreases likelihood to 44% • 3 Fs decreases likelihood to 31%
Severity of Educational Need or Problem Special Education Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit General Education with Support General Education The “Old” Problem Solving Heuristic
What is NOT RtI: It’s not your father’s Oldsmobile • It’s Not About SE Eligibility with a new label (e.g., pre-referral intervention, old team-new name). • It’s Not About SE “Business as Usual” with programs that meet the needs of adults more than students. • Expecting GE Teachers to meet the needs of ALL students (180 students-180 different interventions).
Presentation Intended Outcomes • Describe a heuristic for multi-tiered service delivery for middle and high schools to meet the academic and socio-emotional/behavioral needs. • Provide illustrations of effective reading assessment for • Universal Screening, • Problem Identification • Progress Monitoring in Reading Intervention. • Provide illustrations of effective assessment and intervention tools necessary for • Basic Reading Skills • Success in Content-Area Classes • Behavioral Support • Give you strategies for implementation.
Problem Identification What is the Problem and Is it Significant? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Plan Evaluation Did our plan work? Plan Development What shall we do about it? Problem Solving Steps
The VISION:To Provide Effective Interventions to Meet the Needs of ALL Students Through Early and Scientifically Based Interventions Through Careful Systems Planning Batsche, G. M., Elliott, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.
Information Explosion/Instructional Time Dilemma 1960 Time 1980 Content 2000
/ 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Years in School The Performance Gap / The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning
The Performance Gap / Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Existing Support Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning
Infrastructure Supports The Performance Gap Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills • Infrastructure Support • Flexible Scheduling • Planning Time • Professional Development Time • Extended Learning Time • Smaller Learning Communities / Existing Support Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning
System Learning Supports • Progress Monitoring • Data-Based Decision Making • Problem-Solving • Instructional Coaching • Professional Learning The Performance Gap / Instructional Core System Learning Supports Infrastructure Supports Current Supports Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning
Instructional Core • Motivation/Behavior Supports • Smarter Standards-Based Curriculum Planning • Engaging Instructional Materials& Activities • Student-Informed Teaching • Connected Courses & Coherent Learning • Continuum of Literacy Instruction The Performance Gap / Instructional Core System Learning Supports Infrastructure Supports Current Supports Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning
Problem Identification What is the Problem and Is it Significant? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Plan Evaluation Did our plan work? Plan Development What shall we do about it? Problem Solving Process School Improvement Cycle http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/school.htm Similarities?
School Improvement Activity • What are your current SI Goals? • What content is covered in the current professional development plan? • What problems or issues often come up at your school?
So...WHAT is RTI? 1. An eligibility process for determining if a student has a learning disability? 2. An opportunity to redress years of dissatisfaction with both special education and general education? We See IT as Both
RTI How We See It Needs-Based Service Delivery Systems Problem-Solving Service Delivery System
Program vs. Framework • Response to Intervention (RtI) and School-wide Positive Behavior Support are not programs, but frameworks for designing and implementing proactive, preventative programming using data.
Basic Skills or Functional Literacy Pr oblem? No Y es Instruction in Content What Instruction in Basic or Ar ea Knowledge Literacy Skills Service? Dir ect Service Thru Dir ect Service Thr ough How? Special Education GE; Indirect Service Thru SE or GE Interventions Master Basic or Literacy Master Content Ar ea Goal Skills Knowledge Evaluation Mainstream Consultation CBM Agreements T ool CTM’s & VM A Secondar y Pr oblem-Solving Model
Who Do We Serve in a Problem-Solving Model? We identify: 1. Students with Basic Skills or Severe Literacy Deficits for Direct Service 2. Students without these Deficits who Need Indirect Service for Success in Content Area Courses
A Model of Secondary Special Education Service Delivery Should Be Predicated On: 1. Students with serious functional literacy or basic skills deficits receiving instruction in these skills via special education 2. Students without serious functional literacy or basic skills deficits receiving instruction in content area courses via general education with relevant special education assistance or general education interventions
Grade 8 Material < 10th percentile at beginning of Grade 8 High School Student with Severe Reading Problem
Grade 6 Material < 25th at beginning of the year Obvious and Potentially Severe Educational Need
Grade 4 Material about 50th percentile at end-of-year, but high error rate Testing in Even Easier Material
ALL These Skills General Reading Skill What Does R-CBM Measure? Beware the Trap of the BOXES- Low Scores “in the Box” Mean You Must TEACH the Things in the Box
•Life Experience • Content Knowledge • Activation of Prior Knowledge • Knowledge about Texts • Motivation & Engagement • Active Reading Strategies • Monitoring Strategies • Fix-Up Strategies • Oral Language Skills • Knowledge of Language Structures • Vocabulary • Cultural Influences Language Fluency* We Refer to It as General Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Metacognition Knowledge • Prosody • Automaticity/Rate • Accuracy • Decoding • Phonemic Awareness The Bigger Deficits Here And Here Oral Reading is the EASIEST to Measure--Let’s Get This Down and Add MORE Tools And the MOST Unmotivated Here For Some, the Hardest Thing They’ll Ever Do The Easiest Thing To Teach The Longer It Takes... *modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgesen, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research; www.fcrr.org
Case StudySevere Basic Skill Problem: Provide IntenseBasic Skill Intervention!
Determine the Severity of the Problem Using Survey Level Assessment and Write an IEP
Possible Data Sources Activity • Brainstorm the potential data sources in your school… • Examples may include: • Dean Referrals, Tardies, Suspensions, Expulsions, Outside Placements, Drop Outs • Common Assessments, CBM, Yearly Progress Pro, Failure Rates
The High School Solution: Building Continuously Improving Tier 1 General Education Instruction ~5% ~15% Use of Teaching Routines and Learning Strategies (Kansas) Well-Designed Curriculum with a “Big Ideas” Focus or Ability to “Distill” Curriculum to Big Ideas Effective Secondary Classroom Management Study and Organizational Skills Curriculum Modification ~80% of Students
all most some Increase the Capacity of General Education to Teach ALL Students Critical Content • All students learn critical content required in the core curriculumregardlessof literacy levels. • Teacherscompensate for limited literacy levels by using… • Explicit teaching routines, • Adaptations, and • Technology to promote content mastery. • For example: The Unit Organizer Routine
Key Skills Sets for Secondary Support(http://www.ku-crl.org/)
Content Enhancement Routines (Creating “learning-friendly” classrooms) • A way of teaching academically diverse classes in which… • The integrity of the content is maintained • Critical content is selected and transformed • Content is taught in an active partnership with students The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning
Planning & Leading Learning Course Organizer Unit Organizer Lesson Organizer Exploring Text, Topics, & Details Framing Routine Survey Routine Clarifying Routine Ordering Routine Teaching Routines Concept Mastery Routine Concept Anchoring Routine Concept Comparison Routine Increasing Performance Quality Assignment Routine Question Exploration Routine Recall Enhancement Routine Content Enhancement Teaching Routines The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning