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Subsea Well Intervention RPSEA Presentation October 31 st 2006. Presentation Intent. To overview current intervention landscape To describe the drivers for Intervention To identify and describe the major activities and hardware within a typical Subsea Intervention

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presentation intent
Presentation Intent
  • To overview current intervention landscape
  • To describe the drivers for Intervention
  • To identify and describe the major activities and hardware within a typical
  • Subsea Intervention
  • To outline typical role of the underwater vehicle within an intervention
  • Etc…..
  • To offer input into discussion of role of Autonomous / Robotics technologies In Subsea Intervention Arena
agenda
Agenda
  • Well Geometry (Features Overview) – Tom Zimmerman
  • Subsea Well Intervention Overview – Joe Scranton
    • Intervention Definition / Drivers
    • Categorization of Intervention
    • Key systems overviews
      • The intervention vessel
      • The well control system
      • The underwater vehicle
    • The Subsea Intervention
    • Subsea vehicle duties within well intervention
    • ROV Tooling Overview
    • AUV applicability in the intervention marketplace
floating production storage offloading vessels

Surface

Subsea

Subsurface

The Subsea landscape

Floating Production Storage & Offloading Vessels

Tension Leg Platforms

Metering & Control Systems

Surface Well Systems

Light Well Intervention

Subsea Drilling Systems

Subsea Processing

Standard Subsea Trees

Subsea TemplateSystems

Subsea Manifold

Guidelineless Deepwater Trees

Smart Well Control Systems

ROV Tie-In Systems

economic drivers for intervention
Subsea wells under perform dry tree wells by an estimated 25%

This short fall in production equates to $20.7 Billion per annum

Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) estimate recovery factor improvements of 5% attributable to well intervention

Prize = $5.15 Billion Per Year

Economic Drivers for Intervention
definition of light medium well intervention
Definition of Light/Medium Well Intervention

“Any operation in a subsea wellbore that does not need a drilling rig to gain access to the well, to convey the service .. or .. carry out the operation!”

Source: Deepstar Report 2002

However….

  • Subsea wells under perform platform / dry tree wells
  • Cost of intervention prohibits intervention.
  • Lack of Subsea Christmas Tree commonality makes this task difficult

The value is in the well work, the cost is in the access.

why do we intervene subsea wells
Why do we intervene Subsea wells…?
  • To manage the production of the well:
    • Maintain or Improve production levels
    • Repair wellbore mechanical failures
    • Terminate / suspend production
  • Via well diagnostics:
    • Flow characteristics
    • Geological data
    • Fluids data
  • Via altering the state of the well and/or well geometry:
    • Pro-actively(planned) or Re-actively (unplanned/failure)
    • Shut off unwanted water production
    • Reservoir Stimulation / Fracturing
    • Re-perforating the production intervals or establishing new intervals
    • Open/closing valves
    • Replacing parts
    • Removing scale or wax precipitates
    • Setting plugs
    • Etc………
what do we use to intervene the wells
What do we use to intervene the wells…?
  • Slicklinedeployment technology
    • Monofilament wire used to mechanically convey tools into wellbore.
    • High tensile wire spooled on and off a powered drum
      • Slickline = Pulling
  • Wirelinedeployment technology
    • Multi-strand cable for mechanical conveyance of tools into wellbore, as well as provide an electrical / fiber optic communication path to the operator.
    • High tensile cable spooled on and off a powered drum
      • Wireline = Pulling + Communication
  • Coiled Tubingdeployment technology
    • Rolled & Welded continuous length of steel tubing which is used to convey tools, provide communication path, as well as provide a fluid flow path.
    • Coiled tube spooled on and off a reel, utilizing an “Injector” system.
    • Tube can have integrated Wireline
    • Coiled Tubing = Pulling + Communication + Pushing + Pumping
what problems does being subsea create
What problems does being “Subsea” Create…?
  • Well Control is priority number one!
  • Safety
    • Hazardous working environment
      • Personnel Risk
      • Movement, Pressure, Weather, Heavy Lifts, etc
  • Dynamic working relationship
    • Between work platform (vessel) and wellhead (on seabed)
  • Risk of environmental release
  • Lack of close contact with intervention systems / tooling
    • Loss of senses (direct) / Feedback
    • HMI (Human Machine Interface)Gap
      • Up to 10,000ft.
  • Variable weather conditions
  • Etc…………
typical intervention services utilization models
Typical Intervention Services Utilization Models

Subsea Well Intervention (Type) Analysis

  • 85% of which is in well intervention
  • 52% is Wireline / Slickline serviceable
schlumberger subsea intervention systems
SchlumbergerSubsea Intervention Systems

WellOPSUK Seawell

  • Subsea Intervention Lubricator (SIL)
  • Since late 80’s an excess of 250 wells intervened
  • Cased Hole Logging, Perforating, Slickline
  • Subsea Intervention System Development
  • 7 3/8” x 10Kpsi system designed and delivered to Caldive
  • For both Horizontal x Conventional Tree styles
  • Subsea Completion Tree (SenTREE)
  • Since late 1999 an excess of 200 wells intervened
  • 150 Additional wells committed

Subsea Intervention

Lubricator

7 3/8” x 10kpsi

SS Int. System

Large Bore

SenTREE System

slide14

Intervention Genesis & Industry Firsts

Flopetrol in Brazil 1970’s with a manned module for slickline

First subsea intervention

  • BP Magnus July 1987

First field abandonment

  • Argyll field – Hamilton Brothers – Jan 1993

First subsea wellhead machining repair

  • Ellon field – Total – April 1995

First subsea Cristmas tree change out

  • Ivanhoe / Rob Roy field – November 1995

First subsea coiled tubing intervention

  • Gannet field – Shell Expro – December 1997

First recover / re-installation of an ESP Xmas tree

  • Gannet field – Shell Expro – January 1998

First intervention into a horizontal Xmas tree

  • Arkwright field – Amoco – October 1998

First deep water field abandonment(Horizontal Trees)

  • Cooper – EEX – August 1999

First diver less well de-commissioning operation in North sea

  • Tommeliten – Statoil – June 2000

2000 Onwards – Multiple Interventions (Light through heavy weight)

Slb Compliant Guide System (2006…)

subsea intervention landscape
Subsea Intervention landscape
  • Water Depths shall vary:
    • 300 – 10,000ft(15,000ft by 2015)
  • Hydrocarbon pressures at the wellhead shall vary
    • 1,000 – 15,000 psi (20,000 psi by 2015)
  • A vessel shall be present
    • Positioned above well throughout intervention
    • Within +/- 100m watch circle of wellhead
  • +/- 100 Crew required for vessel / Intervention management
  • Control of well is handed over to vessel at time of intervention
    • Production facility shall not have control
  • A Subsea support vehicle(s) shall always be used
    • Duties dependant on SS Intervention system design.
    • Support vehicle(s) shall be managed from intervention vessel.
  • Durations shall vary (depending on WD, intervention need, etc)
    • Up to 2 weeks
subsea well intervention well intervention vessel categories

VESSEL (C)

VESSEL(A)

VESSEL(B)

Heavy Intervention

Light intervention

Medium intervention

Subsea Well Intervention Well Intervention Vessel Categories
subsea well intervention well intervention vessel categories18

Cat C

Cat A

Cat B

Heavy Intervention

Light intervention

Medium intervention

  • Wireline and Slickline
  • Benchmark 9 days/ well job

$150K – 200K /day

  • Coiled Tubing, Wireline and Slickline
  • Benchmark 9 days/ well job

$150K – 300K /day

  • Heavy Operations
  • Benchmark 15 days/ well job

$360K – 840K/day

Subsea Well Intervention Well Intervention Vessel Categories
  • Operations (Cat A +)

Flowline Intervention

Well commissioning (TCP guns+unloading)

Well abandonment (P&A)

Downhole Pump changeout

Squeeze, acidizing or fracturing

Sand or Scale cleanout

Water shut-off (Plug and perf or patch)

Scraping

DH valve retrieval, replacement, shifting

Casing leak repairs

  • Operations

Logging (PLT’s)

Light perforating

Zone isolation

Plug setting/removal

  • Operations (Cat B +)

Scale milling

Completion change-out/ repair

Re-drill or sidetrack

Xmas tree change-out

floating production storage offloading vessels20

The Subsea landscape

Floating Production Storage & Offloading Vessels

The

Vessel

(Work Platform)

The Subsea

Vehicle

(Intervention Supp.)

Metering & Control Systems

Surface Well Systems

Tension Leg Platforms

The Intervention System

(Temp. Well Ctrl.)

Light Well Intervention

Subsea Drilling Systems

Subsea Processing

The Subsea

Tree

(Perm.Prod.Ctrl.)

Standard Subsea Trees

Subsea Manifold

Guidelineless Deepwater Trees

Smart Well Control Systems

Subsea TemplateSystems

ROV Tie-In Systems

subsea well intervention the vessel
Subsea Well Intervention – The Vessel
  • Provides a mobile work platform from which the Subsea Intervention activities take place.
  • Provides support capabilities to the operation in the form of:
    • Heavy Lift
      • Derrick and Crane
    • Moon Pool
    • Subsea Vehicles (ROV)
    • Tailored bed capacity (100+)
    • Fluids handling
    • Fire and Gas Systems
  • Vessel:
    • Monohull (Purpose built / DP2+)
    • Semi-Submersible
  • Size:
    • Monohull: 100-120m / 15,000tonnes
    • Semi: 4,000VDL / 24,000tonnes
subsea well intervention the tree
Subsea Well Intervention – The Tree
  • Positioned on seabed, located on Subsea wellhead
    • Permanently (upto 25years producing life)
  • Provides, via control system, well control between well itself and seabed pipeline facilities
  • Designed and manufactured:
    • By multiple companies
    • Using industry standards.
  • Two dominant tree styles
    • Horizontal / Vertical (referring to axis that valves are located w.r.t wellbore)
    • Tree styles alters manor in which intervention takes place, but does not alter vehicle activities.
  • Size:
    • 4m3 x 40-60tonnes
  • Cost:
    • $3,000-$6,000k
subsea well intervention intervention hardware
Subsea Well Intervention – Intervention Hardware
  • Provides the ability to re-enter a Subsea well (on a temporary basis) with a variety of tools:
    • To either effect a physical change of state in well
    • To establish data of well condition
  • Establishes additional well control hardware onto well, beyond that typically resident in Subsea tree.
  • Allows the insertion and removal of intervention tooling into the well, whilst the well remains pressurized.
  • Designed and manufactured:
    • By multiple companies
    • Using industry standards.
  • Size:
    • (4mx 4m x 15m)x 40 - 60tonnes
  • Cost:
    • $6,000k to $30,000k
intervention system summary
Intervention System Summary

Subsea Lubricator Example

  • Subsea Stuffing Box / Grease Head
    • Provides environmental seal for slickline / wireline and wellbore
    • Retrieve-able interface for running intervention tools
  • Upper Well Control Head Assembly (Wireline / Slickline)
    • Provides well control in upper lubricator section
    • Incorporates tool catcher
  • Lubricator Section
    • Pressure containing section for storing wellbore tools
    • Length can be varied
  • Emergency Disconnection Assembly
    • Provides remotely controlled interface for separating lubricator
    • from Lower well control stack
  • Lower Well Control Assembly
    • Small bore BOP system to provide additional barriers to environment for
    • intervention activities
    • Contains valves/rams to cut intervention media / tools
  • Tree Interface Assembly / Tree Running Tool
    • Tree / Well specific interface
    • Allows LWI System to mate with well
subsea xmas tree vehicle duties within an intervention
Subsea Xmas TreeVehicle Duties within an Intervention
  • Survey(Visual only)
    • Well position establishment / Depth correlation
    • Leak Detection
    • Interface condition (prior to intervention)
    • Valve position verification
    • Connector position verification
    • Etc…..
  • Well Preparation(Varies depending on intervention)
    • Obstruction removal (manipulator)
    • Guideline / Guidewire establishment (manipulator)
    • Protective cover removal (manipulator)
    • Lift line establishment (manipulator)
      • Tree Cap / Wellhead Connector / etc.
    • Etc…..

Vertical / Conventional Tree

subsea xmas tree vehicle duties within an intervention28
Subsea Xmas TreeVehicle Duties within an Intervention
  • Well Intervention(Varies depending on intervention)
    • Valve Actuator Override (TDU / Piston / T-Tool)
      • Temporary / Permanent
    • Wellhead Connector Override (Hyd Jack)
    • Sub-assembly retrieval (Spec Tooling/ Piston / T-Tool)
      • Choke / Control Module / Cap / MPFM / etc….
    • Lift line establishment (manipulator)
      • Tree Cap / Wellhead Connector / etc.
    • Heavy lift guidance (thrust)
    • Function Hot-stabbing (Hydraulically / Electrically)
    • Measurement
    • Gasket / Seal change-out (manipulator)
    • Surface Cleaning (manipulator / Brush / Jet)
    • Video Support
    • Etc…..

Vertical / Conventional Tree

rov use in subsea interventions
ROV use in Subsea Interventions
  • Pros
  • Power availability
    • Hydraulic and / or electrical
    • 100-500hp @ thrusters
    • Continuous
  • Communications / Control
    • Robust – Fiber Optic to surface control & operator
    • Real-time feedback
    • Multi-channel video
    • Force feedback tactility of tooling systems
  • Cons
  • Vessel Dependency
    • Vessel needs to be located very close to Subsea operation
      • Excursion limited to 10’s of meters from TMS
  • Tether
    • Limiting to freedom of vehicle within structures
typical rov interfaces tools common with intervention
Typical ROV Interfaces / Tools (Common with Intervention)
  • ROV Panel
    • Project specific interface
    • Mounted on side face of SS Structure allowing vehicle to dock.
    • Typically uses API 17D Interfaces
      • Small valve rotation
      • Hydraulic/electrical hot stabbing
      • Video Support
  • Flying Lead Orientation Tool (FLOT)
    • Project specific interface
    • For attaching/removing hydraulic/electrical connections
    • FLOT operations require lifting of umbilicals (100’s lbs), as well as torque/video activity.
  • ROV Manipulator
    • Electro/mechanical arm, with multiple degrees of freedom.

ROV Interface panel

Flying Lead

Orientation Tool

ROV Manipulator Arm

slide32

AUV use in Subsea Interventions

  • Pros
  • Tether-Less
    • No physical connection to support vessel once launched (Vessel can multi-task)
    • Can be launched without surface support vessel
    • Opens weather window of utilization
  • Cons
  • Power
    • Limited in power and duration of operation due to power limitations
      • Battery / Fuel Cell
    • Limited horsepower reduces ability for AUV to offer mechanical services Subsea (Push/Pull/Turn/Lift…)
  • Surface Vessel Proximity Dependency - Communications
    • Analog acoustic within 90deg comms cone from surface (Digital Spread Spectrum enhances this)