Support Staff September 8, 2009
Response to Intervention District Plan WITHIN A RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RtI) CONTEXT, A 3-TIERED MODEL OF RESEARCH-BASED READING INTERVENTIONS USING THE FIVE BIG AREAS OF READING
DID YOU KNOW….. Academic 80% Of student populations do fine with nothing extra Reading framework Reading Framework 15% of student populations need ‘boost’ of some sort Approx. 40% of population has reading problems severe enough to hinder their enjoyment of reading. 20% is an (arbitrary) cutoff point for the purpose of intervening with children deficit in basic reading skills. 5% need intensive supports
How are Children Identified? • STRUGGLING READERS DEFINED AS: • Readers at or below the 25th percentile for total reading on the state assessment • Readers below the 16th percentile on national DIBELS oral reading fluency or early literacy norms. • Teacher Recommendation • Student Reading Level
WHAT WE HAVE ‘IN PLACE’IN OUR PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL • Problem solving teams • Benchmarking all readers using early literacy or oral reading fluency probes. • Development of local reading norms and identification of at-risk readers. • Progress monitoring of at-risk readers. • Using RtI data to drive eligibility decisions
CATCH THEM BEFORE THEY FALL "The probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade, given a child was a poor reader at the end of first grade, was .88 .... the probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade, given an average reading ability in first grade, was .87." (Juel, 1988) 74% of children who are poor readers in 3rd grade remain poor readers in 9th grade. (Francis, et al, 1996)
Later Intervention is Less Efficient, and Often Less Effective • According to the NICHD Branch of the National Institutes of Health • It takes 4 times as long to intervene in 4th as it does to intervene in late Kindergarten 2 hours per day 30 mins./day Late Kindergarten 4th Grade
“Ha, ha, Biff. Guess What? After we go to the drugstore and the post office, I’m going to the vet’s to get tutored.”
Prevention • Accurate identification of at-risk students is merely the first step in preventing reading difficulties. Screening is meaningless without targeted intervention that changes reading outcomes for children. • Students who do not achieve these benchmarks scores are placed in intervention groups after confirming the need for intervention through teacher observation and other data. (K-3rd)
4.9 With research-based core but without extra instructional intervention With substantial instructional intervention 3.2 Control 5.2 5 Intervention 4 Low Risk on Early Screening Reading grade level 3 2.5 2 At Risk on Early Screening 1 Grade level corresponding to age The Vision: Building a System of Substantial Instructional Interventions to Reduce the Gap 1 2 3 4 Torgesen, J.K. ( 2001). The theory and practice of intervention: Comparing outcomes from prevention and remediation studies. In A.J. Fawcett and R.I. Nicolson (Eds.). Dyslexia: Theory and Good Practice. (pp. 185-201). London: David Fulton Publishers. Slide coursety of W. Alan Coulterhttp://www.monitoringcenter.lsuhsc.edu
FRAMEWORK for READING INTERVENTIONS K PALS M. HEGGERTY PROGRAM/ 1ST GR. PALS 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS PALS- GR. 2-6 PREPEATED PRRASES REPEATED READINGS FLIP-A-CHIP VOCAB. WORD BUILDING, VOCAB. MULTILEVEL. VOCAB.PROGRAM METACOGNITIVE STRAT.- COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING READ 180 TIER I. Guided Reading K PALS M. HEGGERTY PROGRAM/ 1ST GR. PALS EAROBICS GREAT LEAPS/ SLANT REWARDS 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS PALS--GR 2-6, READ 180 REPEATED PRRASES, REPEATED READINGS FLIP-A-CHIP VOCAB., WORD BUILDING, VOCAB. MULTILEVEL VOCAB.PROGRAM METACOGNITIVE STRAT.- COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING Students identified through data. PS team matches students to appropriate intervention- teacher, aide. TIER II. At-risk students- Supplemental interventions K PALS M. HEGGERTY PROGRAM/ SRA DI PROGRAMS- READING MASTERY, HORIZONS, CORRECTIVE READING EAROBBICS GREAT LEAPS /SLANT REWARDS 6 MIN. SOLUTIONS REPEATED PHRASES REPEATED READINGS READ 180 TIER III. Highly at-risk students Intensive interventions More intensive individual support-
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS I. RtI (Response to Intervention) II. 3 TIERED MODEL OF INTERVENTIONS III. 5 BIG AREAS OF READING IV. RESEARCH-BASED INTERVENTIONS V. USING A STANDARD PROTOCOL APPROACH VI. DR. CAROLYN DENTON’S AND DR. SHARON VAUGHN’S SUGGESTION FOR REMEDIAL READING APPROACH
Defining Response to Intervention (RtI) (Batsche, Elliott, Graden, Grimes, Kovaleski, Prasse, Reschly, Scharg, Tilley, 2005) • Involves a systematic examination of changes in student outcome/behaviors following changes in instruction and interventions • Using progress monitoring and rate of improvement (ROI) over time to make important educational decisions. • Providing high quality instruction and effective research-based interventions matched to students’ specific needs
Three Tiered Model of Interventions/Supports Behavioral Systems Academic Systems Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Of longer duration 1-5% 1-5% Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% Students Tier 1: Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Tier 1: Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90%
Description of Reading Tiers(University of Texas’ Center for Reading and Language Arts) TIER 1: Universal Interventions- Core reading instruction that ALL students receive (90-120 minutes daily) • The focus at this level is on providing a strong classroom-level comprehensive core reading program (CCRP).
Description of Reading Tiers(University of Texas’ Center for Reading and Language Arts) TIER 2: Target Interventions - 30 minutes of daily small group reading instruction that students who do not score at benchmark on screening assessment receive. • In addition to core reading program • Small group (3-5 students), pull out, similar needs • More intense instruction and monitoring • Focus on reading areas of need • 10-20 weeks of intervention
Description of Reading Tiers(University of Texas’ Center for Reading and Language Arts) TIER 3: Intensive Interventions - 60 minutes of daily small group reading instruction that students who do not make adequate progress in Tier 2 Instruction receive (in addition to core reading instruction) • Students receive longer term, intensive instructional interventions designed to increase their rate of progress. • Consideration for special education services might occur at this level.
Time Curricular Breadth Example of 3-Tier Level Interventions Reading Tier I Tier 3 Tier 2 90 120 180 Curricular Focus 5 areas Less than 5 2 or less Core + Supplemental + Intensive Core + Supplemental Core Frequency of Progress Monitoring 3X Yearly or greater Monthly or greater Weekly
UNIVERSAL TIER 1: Benchmark/Core Programs: 1. Rigby Literacy (Harcourt Rigby Education, 2000) 2. Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003) 3. The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003) 4. Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003) 5. Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002) 6. Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/ McGraw-Hill, 2002) 7. Scott Foresman Reading (2004) 8. Success For All (1998-2003) 9. Wright Group Literacy (2002) Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas and included at least grades K-3 ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
~5% TIER 2 TARGETED: Strategic/Supplemental: 1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin) 2. Read Well (Sopris West) 3. Horizons, Reading Mastery (SRA) 4. 6 Minute Solutions 5. Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.) 6. REWARDS (Sopris West) 7. Ladders to Literacy (Brookes) 8. Read Naturally Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (KPALS) ~15% ~80% of Students
TIER 3: INTENSIVE Intervention 1. Corrective Reading (SRA) 2. Language! (Sopris West) 3. Wilson Reading System 4. Reading Mastery 5. Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness; Cognitive Concepts) 6. Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency) 7. REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in Plus Program) 8. Soar to Success (comp.) ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
BIG IDEAS IN READING (National Reading Panel) • PHONEMIC AWARENESS • PHONICS • FLUENCY • VOCABULARY • COMPREHENSION
NATIONAL READING PANEL MEMBERS/RtI RESEARCHERS“The war on reading is over. It is now known what works and what to do, and it’s only a matter of applying the principles through a best practices approach”. • Dr. Reid Lyon • Dr. S.& B.Shaywitz • Dr. E.Kane’enui • Dr. J. Torgeson • Dr. S. Vaughn • Dr. D. Fuchs • Dr. L. Fuchs • Dr. D. Simmons • Dr. R. Good • Dr. I. Beck • Dr. A. Archer • Dr. R. Kaminski • Dr. L.C. Moats • Dr. C. Denton • Dr. M. Shinn • Dr. G. Batsche • Dr. D. Reschly • Dr. D. Tilly • Dr. J. Ysseldyke
5 Big Areas: Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic Awareness • Ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words • Improves children’s word reading, decoding, fluency, reading comprehension, and spelling
Phonics • Understanding of the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language (alphabetic principle) • The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to automatically form words. • Improves word recognition, decoding,fluency, spelling, and comprehension.
Fluency • The effortless automatic ability to read words quickly and accurately in connected text. • When readers are fluent, they want to read. Reading builds vocabulary. • Fluent reading frees students to understand what they read. Fluency is a key predictor of comprehension.
Vocabulary • The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive)words to acquire and convey meaning. • Fluency is the key building block for vocabulary development. • Good vocabulary knowledge is necessary for good comprehension.
Comprehension • The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning. • The ability to understand or gain meaning from text. • This is the reason for reading!
Intervention Criteria: CHEAP & EASY
IV. WHAT ARE RESEARCH-BASED INTERVENTIONS? Research-based interventions include these critical criteria: • EXPLICIT • SYSTEMATIC • CAREFUL PROGRESSION OF SKILLS • CONSPICUOUS TO THE TEACHER AND LEARNER • MATERIALS BUILD AN INTEGRATION OF SKILLS OVER TIME • PROGRESS MONITORING DATA CLEARLY SHOW THAT THE INTERVENTION IS IMPROVING STUDENT OUTCOMES
V.WHAT IS A STANDARD PROTOCOL APPROACH? • Fuchs et al. (2003) suggest a standard protocol approach that requires use of ‘the same empirically validated treatment for all children with similar problems in a given domain or a specific area of reading need’. • Using the same treatments/interventions increases treatment integrity…ensuring that the same interventions are implemented often, as designed, and with consistency.
VI. WHAT SUGGESTION DO DR. CAROLYN DENTON AND DR. SHARON VAUGHN OFFER FOR TEACHING STRUGGLING READERS? • Denton and Vaughn (2003) suggests that, for the most part, a problem for struggling readers is that they are provided with ‘generic’ reading instruction that is not specific to their particular reading difficulties. • They suggest that the implementation of high-quality, effective interventions targeting unique reader needs would improve reading outcomes.
BIG IDEA Use assessment data to determine student need and link that to instructional strategies and research-based interventions that match that need.
SO WITH THESE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS IN MIND, WHAT IS OUR 3 TIERED MODEL OF RESEARCH BASED READING INTERVENTIONS USING THE 5 BIG AREAS OF READING AND A STANDARD PROTOCOL APPROACH?
PHONEMIC AWARENESS • KPALS • MICHAEL HEGGERTY PROGRAM • 1ST GRADE PALS • EAROBICS • GREAT LEAPS - Gr. K-2
PHONICS • KPALS • 1st Gr. PALS MICHAEL HEGGERTY PROGRAM GREAT LEAPS- Gr. K-2; 3-6 • REWARDS-Gr. 3-5, or Gr. 4-6 • SLANT
FLUENCY GREAT LEAPS- Gr. K-2 1st Gr. PALS 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS • REWARDS- Gr. 3-5, Gr. 4-6 • PALS – Gr. 2-6 REPEATED PHRASES REPEATED READINGS
VOCABULARY • MULTI LEVEL VOCABULARY PROGRAM • FLIP-A-CHIP VOCABULARY BUILDING • WORD BUILDING INTERVENTION • Isbel Beck’s, BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE • CORE VOCABULARY HANDBOOK
COMPREHENSION • METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES • PALS- Gr. 2-6 • COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING (CSR) • PROGRESS MONITORING is also considered an intervention in itself as well as an avenue for measuring intervention effectiveness and rate of improvement (ROI)
SO WHAT DO THESE INTERVENTIONS SPECIFICALLY LOOK LIKE… • AND WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS….?...In other words, what are students’ responses to interventions (RtI)?
KPALS WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS? • PHONEMIC AWARENESS • PHONICS • FLUENCY • VOCABULARY • COMPREHENSION
KPALS • Overview • Teacher Perspective/Tiers/Flexibility • Data