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Implementing the Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention. Minooka School District 201 Response to Intervention. If we can really understand the problem, the answer will come out of it, because the answer is not separate from the problem. -Krishnamurti.

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implementing the problem solving response to intervention

Implementing the Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention


School District 201

Response to Intervention


If we can really understand the problem, the answer will come

out of it, because the answer is not separate from the problem.


contextual issues affecting the problem solving process in general and special education
Contextual Issues Affecting The Problem-Solving Process in General and Special Education
  • IDEA Re-Authorization
    • Focus on academic outcomes
    • General education as baseline metric
    • Labeling as a “last resort”
    • Increasing general education options
    • Pooling building-based resources
    • Flexible funding patterns
    • RtI Introduced as option for LD eligibility
  • ESEA Legislation-No Child Left Behind
  • National Emphasis on Reading
  • Evidence-based Interventions
  • Defining RTI
  • Where did it come from and why do we need it?
  • Support for RTI in federal law
  • Core principles
  • Special education eligibility considerations
  • Policy issues
  • Professional development issues
why focus on reading
Why Focus on Reading?
  • 85% of all curriculum is delivered through the written word.
  • Reading and math scores are directly linked.
  • New standards and assessments for graduation.
how big is the problem
How Big is the Problem?
  • According to the most recent NAEP assessments, only 31 percent of 4th graders are proficient in reading.
  • Low-income students did half as well. In fact, over half of poor fourth graders failed to show even a basic level of knowledge in reading, science, or history.
  • We KNOW what to do!
  • We CAN make a difference!
  • The RESEARCH gives us the technical knowledge and tools to teach each child to read!
what is rti
What is RTI?
  • “RTI is the practice of (1) providing high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important educational decisions to guide instruction”

National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005

response to intervention what are the big ideas
Response to Intervention: What are the big ideas?
  • High quality instruction/intervention: Instruction or intervention matched to student need that has been demonstrated empirically and by practice to demonstrate high learning rates for most students
  • Learning rate and level of performance: Learning rate refers to student’s growth in academic or behavioral skills over time in comparison to prior levels and peer growth rates. Level of performance refers to a students relative standing (growth) on some critical dimension of academic or behavioral skills compared to expected/predicted growth.
  • Important educational decisions: Student intervention outcomes drive decision making at every tier. Decisions about intensity and duration of interventions are based upon data across multiple tiers of intervention.
what rti is and is not
What RTI Is and Is Not


  • RTI isan overall integrated system of service delivery.

Is Not:

  • RTI is not just an eligibility system—a way of reducing the numbers of students placed into special education.
what rti is and is not1
What RTI Is and Is Not


  • RTI is effective for students who are at risk for school failure as well as students in other disability categories.

Is Not:

  • RTI is not limited to students with learning disabilities.
why rti
Why RTI?
  • Provides appropriate learning experiences for all students
  • Uses school-wide progress monitoring to assess entire class progress and individual student progress
  • Promotes early identification of students at risk for academic failure
  • Involves multiple performance measures rather than measurement at a single point in time
  • Under RTI, students receive interventions based on reliable and valid data earlier than the “wait tofail” scenario;
why rti continued
Why RTI? continued
  • RTI identifies specific skill deficits, whereas teacher referrals are more frequently general statements of need;
  • Scientifically-based interventions are used more frequently and earlier;
  • Over identification based on race/ethnicity is reduced in programs for students with learning disabilities and mental retardation;
    • African-American children are twice as likely as white children to be labeled mentally retarded and more likely to be label EBD
why rti continued1

Why RTI? continued

Greater numbers of at-risk students achieve benchmarks;

Principals and superintendents want to know if students are achieving benchmarks, regardless of placement in general education, gifted, or special education;

SLD category has grown 300% since 1976-80% there because they haven’t learned how to read;40% there because they haven’t been taught to read.

problem solving
Problem Solving
  • A process that uses the skills of professionals from different disciplines to develop and evaluateintervention plans that improve significantly the school performance of students
problem solving process

Define the Problem

Defining Problem/Directly Measuring Behavior

Problem Analysis

Validating Problem

Identify Variables that Contribute to Problem

Develop Plan


Ws It Effective?

Implement Plan

Implement As Intended

Progress Monitor

Modify as Necessary

Problem Solving Process
research on problem solving rti
Research on Problem-Solving/RtI
  • Focused on accuracy of referral methods and response to proven interventions
  • RtI methods (local comparisons and multiple measurement) were superior to teacher referral for problem accuracy.
  • Teachers over-referred male students
  • Greater proportion of African American students responded successfully to intervention relative to similarly at-risk Caucasian students. Reduced disproportional placements.
  • Early intervention was powerful
  • Significant reduction in LD placements

(VanDerHeyden, Witt, and Naquin)

research and psm rti
Research and PSM/RtI
  • Problem identification is more accurate using the PSM (Gap Analysis) compared to simply teacher referral.
  • The number of students requiring services has not diminished--the WAY the services are provided has changed.
  • Universal screening and progress monitoring practices ensure that students do not slip through the cracks
  • In most cases, the percent of students receiving LD services has diminished.
what have we learned from other states
What Have We Learned From Other States?
  • Changes in assessment and intervention practices can occur--generally it takes a number of years to effect the change completely.
  • Teacher and parent satisfaction is greater with the PSM/RtI model (Illinois Flexible Service Delivery Model)
  • Student performance is enhanced under the PSM/RtI model
  • Student/parent rights do not change under this model
status of reauthorization
Status of Reauthorization
  • Title: “Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act”
  • Passed House in 2003, Senate in 2004
  • Signed by President Bush in December.
  • IN EFFECT July 1, 2005
  • Regulations in Fall
individuals with disabilities education improvement act
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act
  • (B) Additional authority._In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the childresponds to scientific, research-based intervention.
  • Process refers to “Problem Solving Process”
  • Responds refers to “Response to Intervention”

(5) SPECIAL RULE FOR ELIBIGILITY DETERMINATION- In making a determination of eligibility under paragraph (4)(A), a child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is—(A) lack of appropriate instruction in reading, including in the essential components of reading instruction (as defined in section 1208(3) of the ESEA of 1965);(B) lack of instruction in math; or(C) limited English proficiency.

proposed regs
Proposed Regs
  • For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability,
  • the group must consider, as part of the evaluation described in
  • §§300.304 through 300.306, data that demonstrates that--
  • (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was
  • provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in
  • regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and
  • (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by
  • qualified personnel; and
  • (2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement
  • at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student
  • progress during instruction, was provided to the child'sparents.
proposed regs1
Proposed Regs
  • (c) If the child has not made adequate progress after an appropriate
  • period of time, during which the conditions in paragraphs (b)(1) and
  • (2) of this section have been implemented, a referral for an
  • evaluation to determine if the child needs special education and
  • related services must be made.
  • We KNOW what to do!
  • We CAN make a difference!
  • The RESEARCH gives us the technical knowledge and tools to teach each child to read!
response to intervention core principles
Response to Intervention: Core Principles
  • Use all available resources to teach all students
  • Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Monitor classroom performance
  • Conduct universal screening/benchmarking
  • Use multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Make data based decisions using a problem solving/standard protocol approach
  • Monitor progress frequently
  • Implementation fidelity

System-wide Commitment

Three Tiers

of Instruction





Phonemic Awareness

Intensive Intervention

Strategic Instruction

Core & Content




Five Essential





use all available resources to teach all students
Use all available resources to teach all students
  • RTI practices are built on the belief that all students can learn and everyone supports all students.
  • RTI focuses on student intervention need and not “What is wrong with the student?”
  • Systems Change: Integrated approach
  • No one building/district will look the same
  • Poor/lack of instruction must be ruled out
  • Curricular access blocked by any of the following must be addressed
    • Attendance
    • Health
    • Mobility
  • Sufficient exposure to and focus on the curriculum must occur
  • Frequent, repeated assessment must be conducted

Use all available resources to teach all students, cont.

  • Basic Education
  • LAP-Title
  • Reading First (NCLB, 2001)
  • School Improvement Plan
  • Student Learning Plans
  • Special Education (IDEA 2004)
  • Other resources available to the building or district
use scientific research based interventions
Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Curriculum and instruction approaches must have a high probability of success for the majority of students
  • Offer as soon as it is clear the student is lagging behind
  • Increase intensity of instruction and practice
  • Opportunity for explicit and systematic instruction/practice and cumulative review
  • Provide skillful instruction with good error correction, immediate feedback
  • Guided by and in response to progress monitoring data
  • Must provide a supportive atmosphere for learning
monitor classroom performance
Monitor classroom performance
  • General education teacher play a vital role in designing and delivering high quality instruction
  • General education teachers also monitor student progress through CBMs
  • Student performance in relationship to state standards (GLEs)
universal screening
Universal Screening
  • School staff conduct universal screening in all academic areas and behavior to all students three times/year to identify students at risk
  • Benchmarks document whether a child is on track compared to peer group and/or state standards
  • The student’s data at benchmark testing periods can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of intervention. Is the gap closing?
response to intervention how well are we doing
Response to Intervention:How Well Are We Doing?
  • A systematic and data-based method for determining the degree to which a student has responded to intervention.
  • Determined solely through analyzing data
  • Services should intensify for a student as the student response to intervention is below expectations.
  • When the intensity of services exceed significantly those available through general education, then a student should be considered for special education funding.
response to intervention how well are we doing1
Response to Intervention:How Well Are We Doing?
  • What do we do when a student has been “placed” in special education but the student’s rate of progress has not changed significantly?
  • This has significant implications for special education re-evaluations under the RtI model.
rti the conceptual model
RtI:The Conceptual Model
  • Integrate with Core Instructional Programs and Activities in the District
    • Reading First, Early Intervention, Positive Behavior Support
  • 3 Tiered Model of Service Delivery and Decision-Making
    • “Universal”--What all students get
    • “Supplemental”--additional focus and intensity
    • “Intensive”--modifying instructional strategies
  • Problem-Solving
    • Can occur at any level
    • Increases in intensity across levels
features of a multi tiered model
Features of a Multi-Tiered Model
  • Each tier represents increasingly intense level of services associated with increasing levels of learner needs
  • All students, including those with disabilities are found in Tiers I, II, and III
  • The nature of the academic or behavioral intervention changes at each tier, becoming more rigorous as the student moves through the tiers
  • Students move up and down the tiers depending on need

Three Tiered Model of School Supports

Behavioral Systems

Academic Systems

Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students


Intense, durable procedures

Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students


High Intensity

Of longer duration



Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response


Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response



Tier 1: Universal Interventions

All settings, all students

Preventive, proactive


Tier 1: Universal Interventions

All students

Preventive, proactive



Three-Tier Model of School Supports

5% of your students should be here

15% of your students should be here

80% of your students should be here

use multi tier model of service delivery tier i
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier I
  • Tier I: ALL Students
    • All students receive high quality scientific research based instruction in the core curriculum in all areas
    • Core curriculum provides the foundation for instruction upon which all strategic and intensive interventions are formulated
    • Serves 80-90% of the student body
    • Some Tier 1 interventions may be applied to at risk students followed by progress monitoring
use multi tier model of service delivery tier ii
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier II
  • Tier II: Some Students
    • Strategic interventions supplements instruction to students who are not achieving standards through the core curriculum alone
    • Consists of 5-10% of the student body
    • Occurs in small groups of 3-6 students
    • Short-term in duration [9-12 week blocks]
    • Recommended 3-4 sessions per week at 30-60 minutes per session
    • Students progress is monitored more frequently at Tier II, usually every 2 weeks
use multi tier model of service delivery tier ii cont
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier II, cont.
  • Tier II: Some Students
    • Students may receive more than one block of Tier II interventions if progressing but who have not yet reached the goal
    • Students who reach goal would be reintegrated into Tier I
    • Students who do not progress in Tier II may require more intensive interventions
use multi tier model of service delivery tier iii
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier III
  • Tier III: Few Students
    • Intensive interventions are designed to accelerate a student’s rate of learning by increasing the frequency and duration of individualized interventions based on targeted assessment data.
    • Students at Tier III are those performing significantly below standards and have not adequately responded to Tier I or Tier II interventions
    • Consists of less than 5% of student body
    • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally
    • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks
    • Students progress is monitored on at least a weekly basis
use multi tier model of service delivery tier iii cont
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier III, cont.
  • Tier III: Few Students
    • Consists of less than 5% of student body
    • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally
    • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks
    • Student progress is monitored on at least a weekly basis
    • Students who are successful at Tier III reintegrate to Tier I with Tier II support
    • If not successful at Tier III, consider referral for special education and/or other long-term planning [504 plan, additional Tier III cycle]
intensive tier iii reading intervention
Intensive (Tier III) Reading Intervention
  • Specifically designed reading instruction that extends beyond the time allocated for Tier I and Tier II
  • High school students may require “double dosing” in a two period block, using a research-validated specially designed program to accelerate their learning to read
data based decision making
Data-Based Decision Making
  • The purpose of using data based decision making is to find the best instructional approach for a student with an academic or behavioral problem
  • Decisions are made by teams consisting of professionals knowledgeable about the student, and the parent
  • Decisions are made through the problem solving process or standard protocol

Designing Instruction to Meet Student Needs

Standardized Assessments

Benchmarking or Screening

Instructional Problem Solving

Requires taking multiple sources of evidence and selecting appropriate instructional interventions based on identified

student needs

Progress Monitoring

Performance or Criterion Assessments

a problem solving process

Define the Problem

Clearly identify the deficit area

Evaluate the Plan

Compare progress to the aimline. Did it work?

Analyze the Cause

Develop a hypothesis: Why is the problem happening?

Develop a Plan

Decide on the intervention, timeframe, frequency and intervention provider

Implement the Plan

Carry out the intervention as planned

A Problem Solving Process
standard treatment protocol
Standard Treatment Protocol
  • Process where student decisions are made using an established response to regular occurring circumstances [e.g., Read Well]
  • Implementation involves a trial of fixed duration [e.g., 9-12 weeks]
  • Emerging research is showing success implementing this approach at Tier I and Tier II in the area of reading
universal interventions
“Universal Interventions”
  • Core instructional programs
    • Reading curriculum
    • Student progression requirements
  • Core behavioral programs
    • School-based discipline policies
  • Core home/community programs
    • Attendance program
    • Wellness curricula
supplemental interventions
“Supplemental Interventions”
  • Increased time and focus in academic instruction
  • Classroom-based behavioral interventions
  • Building-based interventions for issues such as attendance, grief management
  • Activate existing peer support programs, mediation
intensive interventions
“Intensive Interventions”
  • Specialized academic interventions
    • Intensive acceleration classrooms
    • 180+ minutes of instruction
  • Social skills training, anger control training, parent education groups
  • Behavior intervention plans
  • Alternative education programs
example of tier level interventions


Curricular Breadth

Example of Tier Level Interventions


Tier I

Tier 3

Tier 2




Curricular Focus

5 areas

Less than 5

2 or less










Frequency of Progress Monitoring

Yearly or greater

Monthly or greater


what is necessary for rti to work for students and districts
What is Necessary for RtI to Work for Students and Districts?
  • Early intervention Use DRA, EduTest, Aimsweb and similar assessments for this purpose
  • Access to and Use of Data Student data is the most accurate means of referring students for assistance and making judgments about intervention effectiveness
  • Accurate Tier 1 Decisions Special education cannot “cure” large-scale pedagogical problems one student at a time
what is necessary for rti to work for students and districts1
What is Necessary for RtI to Work for Students and Districts?
  • Evidence-Based and Available Tier 2 Interventions Good example is K-5 Academic Support Plan
  • Identifying SUCCESSFUL Tier 3 interventions PRIOR to making an eligibility determination
  • Staff Professional Development
  • Technology Support for Data Management and Access to Evidence-Based Tier 2 and 3 Interventions
progress monitoring
Progress Monitoring
  • Documents student growth over time to determine whether the student is progressing as expected in tiers
  • CBMs are primarily used as a method for progress monitoring because they are brief, easy to administer and score, and are good predictors of student ability
  • Progress monitoring data provide a picture of the student’s performance and rate of growth to inform instructional and curricular changes so that every student reaches proficiency on targeted skills
lack of responsiveness to interventions
Lack of Responsiveness to Interventions
  • Defined as rate of improvement, or progress slope that is not sufficient for the student to become proficient with state standards without more interventions
  • Decisions to advance students from one tier to another is based upon analysis of the progress monitoring data to determine if the student is responsive [e.g. 4-6 data points below the aimline after interventions have been altered may show a student is non-responsive]
silver bullets
“Silver Bullets”?
  • All interventions require a commitment of time, resources, professional development, and systemic support
  • None of the programs listed will be effective without an enthusiastic, well-trained teacher able to deliver them with expertise
  • All programs will require a ‘shift’ in the system to accommodate student needs
targeted assessment
Targeted Assessment
  • Targeted assessment means shifting to evaluations that are designed around the specific “targeted” concerns of the student.
  • In other words, we select assessments that measure the area of concern ratherthan administering an assessment and then trying to determine what it means.
  • Usually conducted when student enters Tier III, but may be conducted earlier
  • Fidelity refers to the degree to which RTI components are implemented as designed, intended, and planned.
  • Fidelity is achieved through sufficient time allocation, adequate intervention intensity, qualified and trained staff, and sufficient materials and resources.
  • Fidelity is vital in universal screening, instructional delivery and progress monitoring.
intervention plan
Intervention Plan
  • Documents analysis of student data and outlines interventions and evaluation of progress
  • Also documents implementation of interventions with fidelity
rti and child find
RTI and Child Find
  • Anyone, including parents and teachers, can make a referral at any time in a RTI system.
  • A student cannot be required to go all the way through Tier III before being evaluated if evidence exists to suspect a disability.
when should a student be suspected of having a disability due to a lack of responsiveness
When should a student be suspected of having a disability due to a lack of responsiveness?
  • Students who are performing significantly less than their peers and have been provided two or more Tier III interventions that did not significantly decrease the gap in achievement should be suspected as having SLD and evaluated absent other evidence.
parent involvement in rti
Parent Involvement in RTI
  • In a RTI system parents must be provided progress monitoring data. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(b)(2).
  • Parents must also be informed of:
    • State policies regarding the amount and nature of student performance data that is collected and the general education services that are provided;
    • The strategies for increasing the student’s rate of learning; and
    • Their right to request an evaluation.

34 CFR Sec. 300.311(a)(7).

is consent required before conducting screenings or cbms
Is consent required before conducting screenings or CBMs?
  • Teachers or specialists do not need to obtain consent to evaluate when administering universal screening, CBMs, or targeted assessments to a student in order to determine appropriate instructional strategies for curriculum implementation.

20 USC Sec. 1414(a)(1)(E).

using rti data to identify sld
Using RTI data to identify SLD
  • District procedures set out criteria for using RTI data to establish SLD.
  • District criteria must incorporate new federal regulations on SLD.

34 CFR Sections 300.309 through 300.311

adopt an established approach for using rti data to identify sld
Adopt an established approach for using RTI data to identify SLD
  • Districts are strongly encouraged to use established approaches for using RTI data to identify SLD.
  • Criteria determines if a student is not making sufficient progress to meet age or State-approved grade-level standards in one or more of the SLD areas. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(a)(2)(i).
special education eligibility
Special Education Eligibility
  • To be eligible for special education, the evaluation group for students with SLD must find an adverse educational impact and the need for specially designed instruction (SDI).
  • The evaluation report for eligible students should include recommendations about the SDI and any related services, program modifications, accommodations and other supports the student needs with enough specificity to develop an IEP.
  • In a RTI system, the SDI provided should supplement the scientific-based interventions and high quality instruction the student was already receiving in general education.
same players new roles i
Same players; new roles I
  • The New Psychologist Role
    • Data Manager
    • Data Analyzer
    • Data Synthesizer
    • Detective Extraordinaire
    • Progress Monitoring?
  • The New Sped Teacher Role
    • Data Provider
      • Targeted Assessment
      • Progress Monitoring
      • Intervention opportunities
same players new roles ii
Same players; new roles II
  • The New Parent Role
    • Data Provider
    • Interventionist
    • Progress Monitoring
  • The New General Ed.Teacher Role
    • Tier 1 & Tier 2 interventions
    • Progress Monitoring
    • Data provider for Learning Env.
    • Be ready for intervention
same players new roles iii
Same players; new roles III
  • The New Principal Role
    • As goes the principal’s attitude, so goes the team
    • Providing for the assessment of intervention fidelity
  • The New Attitude
    • We are not looking at the child as broken
    • Focus is on “Why isn’t the general education curriculum working for this child?”
six critical components to implementing an rti model
Six critical components to Implementing an RTI Model
  • The first critical component is the development and initiation of universal screening administered to ALL students three times per year. Purpose?
  • Identify the problem areas in measurable terms. Assessment results should be objective and specific, rather than anecdotal or opinion based.
  • Establish baseline data. Using CBM allows you to identify the performance of each student on a specific skill measure. Comparing the individual student to the universal screening data allows you to identify the needs of the student.
six components cont
Six Components cont.
  • Develop and write an accountability plan once you have identified the measurable problem and the team has identified the intervention to be used. The plan MUST address a description of the specific intervention, the duration, schedule, and setting of the implementation of the intervention, and who is responsible. The accountability plan also must address the measurable outcomes, the rubric for intervention adjustment, and the description of the skill measurement and data keeping responsibilities. Schedule for PM is required.
six components cont1
Six Components, cont.
  • It is critical that a schedule for and a design of a PM system be established and maintained throughout the system. Develop the PM system prior to the intervention. This must be done on regular intervals.
  • Once you have implemented the five critical components above, you are now ready to implement the comparison of your baseline date to your results.
four top intervention team responsibilities
Four Top Intervention Team Responsibilities
  • Define the Problem—Determine IF a problem exists—Form a hypothesis based on the definition of the problem—Determine why the problem occurs
  • Develop a plan—Specificity—Clearly defined goals
  • Implement the plan—Who—What—Where—When
  • Evaluate—on-going assessment of data is needed to determine effectiveness of the plan—Review goals and objectives; plot student data; Answer the following questions:
questions to evaluate
Questions to Evaluate
  • Did the team identify all of the objectives and assign meaningful goals?
  • Did the student meet/exceed the goals and objectives?
  • Was the student successful?
five stages of the intervention team process
Five Stages of the Intervention Team Process
  • Stage I: Request for Assistance
  • Stage II: Consultation
  • Stage III: Problem Identification and Analysis
  • Stage IV: Develop and Implement the Intervention
  • Stage V: Evaluate the Intervention
a model for implementation
A Model for Implementation
  • Screening (Responsibility: general education with support)
  • Modification of general education program, minimum of 6-8 documented weeks (Responsibility: general education)
  • Monitoring responsiveness to general education (Responsibility: general education with support)
  • Referral to school support team, diagnostic intervention minimum 9 weeks (Responsibility: general education with support)
model cont
Model, cont.
  • Monitoring response to diagnostic treatment (Responsibility: general education with support)
  • More intensive diagnostic intervention, minimum 9-12 weeks
  • Monitoring response to diagnostic treatment (Responsibility: general education with support)
  • (Step 1 for special education consideration of disability)
do we really want to do this
Do We REALLY Want To Do This?
  • It Depends
  • If we are interested in as many students AS POSSIBLE achieving benchmarks AND AYP--it’s the best thing we have
  • If we are looking to solve pedagogical management problems for diverse populations, then probably not.
how long will it take to implement this effectively
How Long Will It Take to Implement this Effectively?
  • 1-3 years
  • Take it one step (e.g., skill) at a time.
  • Start with young students (Kindergarten)
  • Consider Tier 1 issues
  • Create Tier 2 options with existing staff and resources
  • Develop a 3 year plan for staff
  • Ease their job with social support and technology
  • Use networks-avoid “reinventing” the wheel.
implications for team members
Implications for Team Members
  • Identification of “evidence-based” interventions for high rate student concerns
  • Identification of Tier 1 interventions
  • Identification of Tier 2 interventions
  • Identification of Tier 3 interventions
  • Methods to assess “response to intervention”
  • We must relate student outcomes to service delivery