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100 B.C. – 44 B.C. Julius Caesar Please take out your Caesar packet. Hand in your noun packet on the cart. Latin 3 Honors. Go over test/quizzes Practice noun endings Julius Caesar packet. Greco-Roman perspective on history. Concept of Afterlife.

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latin 3 honors
Latin 3 Honors

Go over test/quizzes

Practice noun endings

Julius Caesar packet

concept of afterlife
Concept of Afterlife
  • Their concept of an afterlife is not extremely pleasant for most people
  • Shades (manes) in Orcus, Hades, Chaos, Tartarus, etc.
  • Shining examples of virtue and valor go to Elysium (among the Roman authors, only famous people are here)
  • Reincarnation possible, not necessarily a widely held belief
greek concept even more bleak at least during homer
Greek concept even more bleak (at least during Homer)
  • Concept is less developed
  • No Elysium (at the time of Homer)
psalm 103
Psalm 103
  • 15As for man, his days are as grass: as a flower of the field, so he flourisheth.
  • 16For the wind passeth over it, and it is gone; and the place thereof shall know it no more.
  • 17But the mercy of the LORD is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear him, and his righteousness unto children's children;
  • 18To such as keep his covenant, and to those that remember his commandments to do them.
  • 19The LORD hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all.
fear of being forgotten
Fear of being forgotten

Achilles’ choice:

1) Great and famous war hero—die young


2) Live a long and happy life with family but NO FAME

julius caesar
Julius Caesar

-Serving as quaestor (provincial administrator) in Hispania in 69 BC

-Sees a statue of Alexander the Great

-Realizes that by the time he was

30, Alexander had the world at his feet

ceasar returns to rome to gain fame glory through roman politics
Ceasar returns to Rome to gain fame/glory through Roman politics

Alexander conquered all major civilizations of the near East  (356–323 BC)

  • No to make it to Elysium
  • Fama (fame)
  • Gloria (glory)
  • Fatum (destiny) to a lesser extent; applies especially to Aeneas
  • Living as a part of history/making history with their lives
  • Caesar’s view of Alexander
  • In vocabulo HOMMO littera ‘m’ ______________________________ [is extra].

Verb of caput, potest, oportet, necesse est


Oportet litteram “H” _________________ [delete] in HOCULUS.

epistulas epistolas

Marcus _________________________ [letters] ad patrem absentem non scribit quia improbus est.


Charta e papyro ________________________ [is made out of/from].

calamo charta
calamo; charta

Magister _________________ [with a pen] in _____________________ [paper] scribit.

mollis 3 rd declension adj
Mollis (3rd declension adj.)

Cera est materia _______________________ [soft].


LItterae Titi et Marci aeque __________________________ [=foedae] sunt.

ferrum dura
Ferrum; dura

_____________________ [iron] est materia _________________ [hard].


________________________ sunt bestiolae quae ceram efficiunt.


_________________________ [such] litterae sunt difficile legere.


Marcus multa __________________________ [mistakes] facit quia stultus atque impiger est.

decline pastor bonus a um
Decline pastor bonus, a, um

Pastor bonus pastores boni

Pastorem bonum pastores bonos

Pastoris boni pastorum bonorum

Pastori bono pastoribus bonis

Pastore bono pastoribus bonis

materia mollis
Materia mollis

Materia mollis materiae molles

Materiam mollem materias mollas

Materiae mollis materiarum mollium

Materiae molli materiis mollibus

Materia molli materiis mollibus

talis littera
Talis littera

Talis littera tales litterae

Talem litteram tales litteras

Talis litterae talium litterarum

Tali litterae talibus litteris

Tali littera talibus litteris


1st declension: a, charta, epistula, insula, materia, cera

2nd declension masculine: us/r, magister, magistrum, magistri, discipulus, calamus

2nd declension neuter: um, mendum, oppidum

3rd declension masc, fem, or neuter

Nominative: ovis, mollis (adj.)

Nominative: mare, rex, mater, pes maris, regis, matris, pedis,

materia dura
Materia dura

Materia dura materiae durae


Are the same!

third triumvirate
Third Triumvirate



Julius Caesar

HW: Finish questions about Caesar and the third triumvirate. Quiz Friday: Julius Caesar and the Third Triumvirate

You need a notebook out, because we are going to take notes for about 10-15 min.

event 1
Event # 1

The first triumvirate including Crassus, Pompey the Great, and Caesar is formed

event 2
Event # 2

Caesar becomes consul with the support of Crassus and Pompey

event 3
Event # 3

Julia, wife of Pomey and daughter of Caesar dies, and the bond between the two men weakens.

event 4
Event # 4

Crassus is killed in the East by the Parthians; third triumvirate weakened

event 5
Event # 5

Caesar dominates Gaul and makes a lot of money; the Senate and Pompey grow to fear his power

event 6
Event #6

Caesar begins his return March to Rome and refuses to disband his army as Pompey wishes.

event 7
Event #7

Caesar crosses the Rubicon river in Northern Italy and states “alea iacta est:” “the die is cast.” He has rolled the die of fate. (We often say dice erroneously because “dice” is plural).

event 8
Event #8

Pompey moves his troops to Greece so he can fight Caesar on more open terrain

event 9
Event #9

Caesar travels, without field rations for his troops, to Greece and defeats Pompey at the battle of Pharsalia.

event 10
Event #10

Pompey is assassinated and Caesar is given his severed head.

event 11
Event #11

A conspiracy of sixty senators, including Cassius and Brutus, was formed because Caesar’s immense power and prestige were feared by Roman nobles.

event 12
Event #12

Caesar is assassinated by the conspirators, including some of his closest friends on the Ides of March. His last words are supposedly, “Et tu, Brute?”

YEAR: 44 B.C.

event 13
Event #13

Caesar’s will is read and Octavian, later Augustus Caesar, is listed the heir to his power

when caesar crossed this river in northern italy he had officially declared war on the empire
When Caesar crossed this river in Northern Italy he had officially declared war on the empire….

The Rubicon

phrase uttered by caesar when he crossed the rubicon in latin and english
Phrase uttered by Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon (in Latin and English)

“Alea iacta est;” “The die is cast”

quiz tomorrow on caesar third triumvirate a little about cicero
Quiz tomorrow on Caesar, Third Triumvirate, a little about Cicero

Latin Club today

Need a tutor for a Latin 2 student

Matt Koch needs to pay me for Fall Forum.

Please finish your group translation of the paragraph about Janus.

if you are finished translate these caesar quotes
If you are finished, translate these Caesar quotes
  • Gallia estomnisdivisa in partestres.

All Gaul is divided into three parts.

2) Nihilestincertiusvulgo, nihilobscuriusvoluntatehominum, nihilfallaciusrationetotacomitiorum.

Nothing is more uncertain than the mob, nothing is secretive than the will of men, nothing is more deceitful than all the reckoning of the assemblies.

(Review: -ius is the ending for the comparative adverb as well as the neuter singular comparative adjective)

quotable caesar
Quotable Caesar

Alea iacta est

Veni vidi vici.

Et tu Brute?

What they literally mean/why he said them

  • Greedy, unscrupulous/immoral businessman
  • Wealthy
  • Fires
  • Brought back decimation: killed every tenth
  • Crucified 6000 of Spartacus’ rebellious comrades
  • Chopped off head, gold poured down throat
  • Eliminated piracy in the Mediterranean in three months
  • Pompey began his career as a victorious commander under Sulla
  • Defeated Mithradates in Pontus
  • Married Julia, Julius Caesar’s daughter
  • Defeated by Caesar at battle of Pharsalus
  • Assassinated/decapitated on his way to Egypt
veni vidi vici

Caesar defeated Mithradates’ son in Pontus


Originally applied to a victorious commander; command/power; leave “imperium” untranslated; the emperor and some higher ranking officials had imperium

cases of cicero
Cases of Cicero
  • Pro Roscio

Defends Roscius on charge of patricide; Roscius is acquitted ; Roscius was accused by a powerful associate of Sulla

  • In Verrem

Verres was a corrupt governor in Sicily; Cicero prosecuted him for corruption; defense attorney for Verres gave up

  • In Catilinum

Catiline was the mastermind behind a conspiracy to overthrow the state; Cicero sucessfuly prosecuted him

what does cicero have to do with caesar
What does Cicero have to do with Caesar?

Cicero sides with Brutus and Cassius against Caesar; staunchest and most vociferous defender of the Roman republic;

Eventually he is killed by Antony and Augustus

cassius and brutus agree or disagree
Cassius and Brutus: Agree or disagree?

2,ooo,ooo million people in Gaul

“As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him.”

Brutus, in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar