Smallpox. Jay Mung. Celia Rivera. Christopher Rinn. Introduction. Smallpox is a highly contagious human disease caused by the virus variola . Named from the Latin word varius meaning “spotted”. There are two strains:
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Smallpox was a fearful and devastating disease. If it didn't kill its victims, it scarred and disfigured them for life.Victim
Causative agents traditionally classified by signs and symptoms
Situation changed by discovery of Muller et al (1978)
Non-genetic reactivation of “killed virus” Berry & Dedrick (1936)
“killed virus” + non-virulent live-virus infection.
Not to be confused with bacterial transformation:
Virions naturally released from cell are enclosed in envelope
Virions released by cellular disruption are without envelope
Adsorption and penetration of host cells
ectodermal cells of chick embryo
skin of patient with hemorrhagic smallpox
Initial Symptoms/ Prodrome Phase (Duration: 2 to 4 days)
Early Rash (Duration: ~4 days)
Pustular Rash (Duration ~5 days)
Pustules and Scabs (Duration ~5 days)
Resolving Scabs (Duration ~6 days)
Quote from P. Tiessier, Academy of Medicine in France, January 23, 1923.
“As the result of intensive inflammatory swelling, the festinum becomes hideous, with bulging face and bright red cheeks, swollen and closed eyelids, turned-out lips, with fungal infection (where the edges of the lips become swollen and bleed easily) and bleeding. From the half open mouth a dribble of saliva constantly and abundantly runs and is fetid; with blocked nasal passages a pussy liquid oozes (purulent and bloody) and equally fetid; the tongue is swollen and ulcerous, the pharynx is covered with ulcers, which means that every effort to swallow gives rise to great pain. The poor patient whose body is covered in pus and gangrenous lesions in places, from which a nauseous and repugnant odour emanates, still suffers from an agonizing dyspepsia, from an unquenchable thirst, and from complete insomnia.”
At least 90% of all smallpox cases are clinically characteristic and easily diagnosed. There are two forms of smallpox which are difficult to recognize: Hemorrhagic and Malignant.