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Fundamentals in the Sentence Writing Strategy

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  1. Fundamentals inthe Sentence Writing Strategy The Learning Strategy Series 2002 The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Lawrence, Kansas University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  2. Learning Strategies Curriculum Acquisition • Word Identification • Paraphrasing • Fundamentals of Paraphrasing & Summarizing • Self-Questioning • Visual Imagery • Word Mapping • Inference University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  3. Learning Strategies Curriculum Storage • First-Letter Mnemonic • Paired Associates • Listening and Note-Taking • LINCS University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  4. Learning Strategies Curriculum Expression and Demonstration of Competence • Sentences • Paragraphs • Error Monitoring • Themes • Assignment Completion • Test Taking • Essay Test-Taking • InSPECT • EDIT University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  5. Pertinent Setting Demands • Students must express themselves and demonstrate their knowledge in writing: • in book reports • in themes/research papers • in answers to chapter questions • in answers on tests University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  6. Purpose of this Instructional Program • To teach students to write a variety of complete simple sentences with fluency. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  7. Steps of the Strategy Require students to: • Use formulas to form the sentences they write • Decide on the appropriate wording of a sentence before they write it • Write the sentence using appropriate capitalization at the beginning and punctuation throughout and at the end • Check their work University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  8. Adaptation of Instruction Instruction can be adapted: • within one grade level • across grade levels • to individual instruction • to small-group instruction • to large-group instruction • to the elementary level • to the secondary level • to the post secondary level University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  9. Rationales Behind the Sentence Writing Strategy Students often do not know how to structure their sentences. The formulas give them this structure. Students often do not know how to approach a writing task. The Sentence Writing Strategy gives them a simple, 4-step approach to a writing task. Writing is often a difficult task for students. Students who learn this strategy learn through structured practice to write fluently and to get pleasure from writing activities. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  10. Percentage Complete Sentences Percentage Complicated Sentences Pretest 70% 18% Regular classroom products after Generalization Stage 98% 58% Sentence Writing Results University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  11. Sentence Writing Strategy Instructional Program • Prerequisites for the Sentence Writing Strategy (coming in the future) • Fundamentals in the Sentence Writing Strategy (summer 1998) • Proficiency in the Sentence Writing Strategy (1985) University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  12. Fundamentals in theSentence Writing Strategy • The five requirements of a complete sentence • A strategy for writing & checking sentences ("PENS") • A sub-strategy for checking sentence completeness ("MARK") • Four types of simple sentences University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  13. Proficiency in theSentence Writing Strategy • A strategy for writing and checking sentences ("PENS") • Four types of sentences • Simple • Compound • Complex • Compound-complex University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  14. Instructional Sequence for the Sentence Writing Strategy Pretest for all Sentence Types Go to Another Strategy Yes Mastery No Part I: Simple Sentences No Mastery Yes Compound Sentences (Review Simple & Compound) Part II: No Mastery Yes Continue to Part III University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  15. Instructional Sequence for the Sentence Writing Strategy Complex Sentences (Review Simple, Compound, & Complex) Part III: No Mastery Yes Compound-Complex Sentences (Final Review) Part IV: No Mastery Yes Go to Another Strategy University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  16. Uses of the Fundamentals Program • A developmental curriculum • A remedial program • A trouble-shooting program University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  17. As a Developmental Curriculum • Teach in general education classes, grades 3, 4, & 5 • Use all the lessons • Intersperse other writing assignments and activities University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  18. As a Remedial Curriculum • Teach intensively in support-class setting • Use all the lessons OR Jump through the lessons University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  19. As a Trouble-Shooting Program • Start teaching in Proficiency program • Select lessons according to emerging errors • Confusing infinitives with the verb • Confusing nouns in prepositional phrases with the subject • Not identifying helping verbs University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  20. Selecting Students for the Sentence Writing Strategy 1. Students must be able to write words legibly in print or script. 2. Students must be able to spell enough words such that a sentence can be deciphered by the teacher. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  21. Topic List Sentence Writing Strategy My favorite meal Summer activities The best things about school Life as a teenager The best place to live My favorite sport The best job in the world My New Year's resolution University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  22. Concepts in theFundamentals Program Capital letter Prepositional phrase End punctuation Adjective Subject Main subject Action verb Complete subject Linking verb Helping verb Simple sentence Adverb Infinitive University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  23. Scaffolded Instruction • Small steps • Success ensured • Continuous review • Complexity builds University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  24. Instructional Sequence for Each Lesson • Review (verbal practice) • Describe • Model • Verbal practice (sometimes) • Guided practice • Independent practice University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  25. Cognitive ProcessesAcross Learning Sheets • Identification • Creation • Discrimination or Integration University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  26. Complete Sentences 1.Start with a capital letter 2.Have end punctuation(. ? !) 3.Have a subject(S) 4.Have a verb(V) 5.Make sense S V . ? ! University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  27. The Subject The person, place, thing, quality, or idea that the sentence is about. • Examples Jenna went for a walk. (Person) The store was closed. (Place) Balloons rose into the sky. (Things) Silence filled the streets. (Quality) Peace was declared at midnight. (Idea) University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  28. Action Verb A word that shows the action of the subject of the sentence. • Examples: Body ActionsMind Actions walk think run want University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  29. The PENS Strategy Pick a formula Explore words to fit the formula Note the words Search and check University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  30. Search & Check Step M Ask ”Is there a verb?" Root out the subject (ask, ”Who or What _____?") Key in on the • beginning • ending • meaning University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  31. Linking Verbs Words that link the subject to another word that describes the subject. Am Was Are Were Is Seem Be Been Become University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  32. Verb A word that shows the action or state-of-being of the subject University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  33. Search & Check Step Mark out imposters • infinitives • prepositional phrases Ask “Is there a verb?” Root out the subject (“Who or What _____?”) Key in on the • beginning • ending • meaning University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  34. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  35. Prepositions about down past above during across since after except against through along for throughout amid from to among toward around in at inside under into underneath before until behind like up below upon beneath near with beside of within between off without beyond on by over out outside of University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  36. Types of Simple Sentences SV "One person doing one thing" SSV "Two people doing one thing" SVV "One person doing two things' SSVV "Two people doing two things" University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  37. Adjective A word that describes a noun. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  38. Main Subject The one word that best tells what the sentence is about. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  39. Helping Verbs Words that help the main verb show the action in a sentence. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  40. Helping Verbs am are is was were may might must can could do does did shall should has have had will would be being been University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  41. Recall Device for Helping Verbs C H A D B. S W I M 2 3 2 3 3 2 4 1 3 Chad B. Swim is 23 years old University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  42. Adverbs Words that add information about the action of the subject of the sentence. They show: • when • where • how • to what extent (how often, how much) the action takes place University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014

  43. The Interface Between the Programs Prerequisites Instruction (coming) Fundamentals Instruction (1998) Proficiency Instruction (1995) Noun, Verb Complete Sentences Simple Sentences Complete Sentences Simple Sentences Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences Beginning Age: Early Elementary Grade 3 Grade 6 University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning 2014