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Microscopic anatomy

Microscopic anatomy

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Microscopic anatomy

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  1. Microscopic anatomy • Fine anatomy • Study of structures that can only be seen with magnification like a microscope • Examples: • Cytology (study of cells) • Histology (study of tissues)

  2. Macroscopic anatomy • Gross anatomy • Study of structures visible to the naked eye • Example: bones • Viewing an xray is considered an examination of gross anatomy

  3. Etiology • The cause of the disease or illness

  4. pathology • The study of diseases • Pathologist-is a physician who examines tissues, checks the accuracy of lab tests and interprets the results in order to facilitate the patient's diagnosis and treatment.

  5. idiopathic • If the cause of a disease cannot be determined

  6. nosocomial • Infectious disease contracted while in a medical facility

  7. epidemiology • Study of the transmission, frequency of occurrence, distribution, and control of a disease • Epidemiologist- are public health professionals who investigate patterns and causes of disease and injury in humans. They seek to reduce the risk and occurrence of negative health outcomes through research, community education, and health policy.

  8. Prognosis • Prediction of the outcome of a disease

  9. Syndrome • Specific grouping of signs and symptoms related to a specific disease • Signs- objective, measureable indicators of an illness • fever • Symptoms • headache

  10. Metabolism • Refers to all the chemical operations going on within our bodies

  11. Chronic • Long duration or frequent occurrence

  12. Acute • Rapid onset or short course

  13. Supine

  14. Prone

  15. Trendelenburg position

  16. Fowler’s position

  17. 8/22 • Antebrachial- forearm • Antecubital- depressed area in front of the elbow • Axillary- armpit • Brachial- upper arm • Buccal- cheek • Carpal- wrist • Cervical- neck • Digital- fingers • Femoral- upper inner thigh • Gluteal- buttocks • Lumbar- lower back • Nasal- nose • Oral- mouth • Orbital- eye area • Patellar- knee • Pedal- foot • Plantar- sole of the foot • Pubic- genital region • Sternal- breastbone area • Thoracic- chest

  18. 09/11/18 Terminology Tuesday! • Abrasion- scraping away of the skin surface by friction • Cicatrix- a scar • Comedo- collection of hardened sebum in hair follicle (a blackhead) • Contusion- injury caused by a blow to the body; a bruise • Cyanosis- bluish tint caused by lack of oxygen • Dermatology- branch of medicine involving integumentary system • Diaphoresis- profuse sweating • Ecchymosis- skin discolorations caused by blood collecting under the skin; a bruise • Erythema- redness or flushing of the skin • Keloid- formation of a raised and thickened scar • Lesion- a general term for wound, injury, or abnormality • Pallor- abnormal paleness of the skin • Petechiae- pinpoint purple or red spots from minute hemorrhages under the skin • Photosensitivity- condition in which the skin reacts abnormally when exposed to light • Urticaria- a skin eruption of pale reddish wheals with itching; hives • Verruca- benign growth caused by a virus; commonly called warts

  19. 09/18/18 Terminology Tuesday • Cyst- fluid filled sac under the skin • Fissure- crack like lesion or groove • Laceration- torn or jagged wound • Macule- flat, discolored area flush with skin surface; example freckle or birthmark • Nodule- firm, solid mass of cells in the skin larger than ½ cm in diameter • Papule- small, solid, circular raised spot on the surface of the skin less than ½ cm in diameter • Pustule- raised spot on the skin containing pus • Ulcer- open sore or lesion in the skin or mucous membrane • Vesicle- a blister • Wheal- small, round, swollen area on the skin; typically seen in an allergic reaction • Abscess- a collection of pus in the skin • Cellulitis- a diffuse, acute infection and inflammation of the connective tissue found in the skin • Gangrene- tissue necrosis usually from insufficient blood supply • Impetigo- highly infectious bacterial infection of the skin with pustules that rupture and become crusted over • Psoriasis- chronic inflammatory condition consisting of papules forming “silvery scale” patches with circular borders

  20. 10/09/18 Terminology Tuesday • Crepitus- noise produced by bone or cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis • Prosthesis- artificial device that is used as a substitute for a body part • Adhesion- scar tissue forming in the fascia surrounding a muscle • Contracture- abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia • Gait- manner of walking • Traction- process of pulling or drawing, usually with a mechanical device to treat orthopedic problems

  21. 10/23/18 Terminology Tuesday • Abduction- movement away from midline of the body • Adduction- movement toward the midline of the body • Flexion- act of bending or being bent • Extension- movement that brings a limb into or toward straight • Dorsiflexion-backward bending, as of hand or foot • Plantar flexion- bending sole of foot; pointing toes downward • Eversion- turning outward • Inversion- turning inward • Pronation- to turn downward or backward as the hand or foot • Supination- turning palm or foot upward

  22. 10/30/18 Terminology Tuesday • Elevation- to raise a body part; such as shrugging the shoulders • Depression- a downward movement; such as dropping the shoulders • Circumduction- movement in a circular direction from a central point • Opposition- moving the thumb away from the palm • Rotation- moving around a central axis • Callus- mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during healing • Exostosis- a bone spur • Osteogenic sarcoma- most common type of bone cancer • Rickets- deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood which results in bone deformities • Talipes- congenital deformity causing malalignment of the ankle and foot. Clubfoot • Arthroscopy- examination of the interior of a joint with an arthroscope (small camera) Some conditions can be repaired during arthroscopy

  23. 11/27/18 Terminology Tuesday • Orthotics- use of equipment, such as splints and braces, to support a paralyzed muscle, promote a specific motion, or correct musculoskeletal deformities • Prosthetics- artificial devices, such as limbs and joints, that replace a missing body part • Mobility- state of having normal movement of all body parts • Gross motor skills- use of large muscle groups that coordinate body movements such as walking, running, jumping, and balance • Fine motor skills- use of precise and coordinated movements in such activities as writing, buttoning, and cutting • Range of motion- range of movement of a joint, from maximum flexion to maximum extension. It is measured as degrees of a circle • Rehabilitation- process of treatment and exercise that can help a person with a disability attain maximum function and well-being

  24. 12/04/18 Terminology Tuesday • Intracavitary- injection into a body cavity such as the peritoneal cavity • Intradermal- very shallow injection just under the top layer of skin. Commonly used in skin testing for allergies or tuberculosis. • Intramuscular- injection directly into the muscle of the buttocks, thigh, or upper arm. Used when there is a large amount of medicine or it is irritating • Intrathecal- injection into the meningeal space surrounding the brain and spinal cord • Intravenous- injection into the veins. This route may be set up to deliver medication very quickly or to deliver a continuous drip of medication • Subcutaneous- injection into the subcutaneous layer of the skin, usually the upper, outer arm, or abdomen; for example, insulin injection

  25. 01/15/19 Terminology Tuesday • Palsy- temporary or permanent loss of the ability to control movement • Paralysis- temporary or permanent loss of function or voluntary movement • Paraplegia- paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs • Paresthesia- abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling • Seizure- sudden, uncontrollable onset of symptoms • Syncope- fainting • Tremor- involuntary repetitive alternating movement of a part of the body • Unconscious- condition or state of being unaware of surroundings, with the inability to respond to stimuli

  26. 01/22/19 Terminology Tuesday • Aura- sensations, such as seeing colors or smelling an unusual odor, that occur just prior to an epileptic seizure or migraine headache • Coma- profound unconsciousness or stupor resulting from an injury or illness • Conscious- condition of being awake and aware of surroundings • Convulsion- severe involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. These have a variety of causes, such as epilepsy, fever, and toxic conditions. • Delirium- abnormal mental state characterized by confusion, disorientation, and agitation • Dementia- progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes with performing activities of daily living. Patients have little awareness of their condition. Found in disorders such as Alzheimer’s. • Focal seizure- localized seizure often affecting one limb • Hemiparesis- weakness or loss of motion on one side of the body • Hemiplegia- paralysis on only one side of the body • Neurology- branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the nervous system.

  27. 01/29/19 Terminology Tuesday • Petit mal seizure- also called absence seizure- only last a few seconds, characterized by a loss of awareness and an absence of activity • Alzheimer’s disease- Chronic, progressive mental disorder consisting of dementia • Concussion- injury to the brain • Migraine- headache characterized by severe head pain, sensitivity to light, dizziness, and nausea • Reye syndrome- combination of symptoms including acute encephalopathy and damage to organ, especially the liver caused by children under 15 taking aspirin with a viral infection • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. Muscular weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons • Poliomyelitis- viral inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Almost eliminated due to vaccinations.

  28. 02/05/2019 Terminology Tuesday • Analgesic- non-narcotic medication to treat minor to moderate pain. Including aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen • Anesthetic- drug that produces a loss of sensation or loss of consciousness • Anticonvulsant- substance that reduces the excitability of neurons and therefore prevents the uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures. • Hypnotic- drug that promotes sleep • Sedative- drug that has a relaxing or calming effect

  29. 02/12/2019 Terminology Tuesday • Nyctalopia- difficulty seeing in dim light; night blindness • Photophobia- sensitivity to light • Presbyopia- visual loss due to old age • Xerophthalmia- dry eyes • Achromatopsia- color blindness • Esotropia- inward turning of the eye; cross eyed • Exotropia- outward turning of the eye • Vertigo- dizziness