slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 42 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 42

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 60
minnie

Chapter 42 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

113 Views
Download Presentation
Chapter 42
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 42 Circulation & Gas Exchange

  2. Functions of the Circulatory System • Transport oxygen to cells • Transport nutrients from the digestive system to body cells • Transport hormones to body cells • Transport waste from body cells to excretory organs • Distribute body heat

  3. Gastrovascular Cavity of Aurelia

  4. Open Circulatory System

  5. Closed Circulatory System

  6. Ventricle Atrium

  7. Circulatory Systems in Fish, Amphibian, & Mammal Endotherm Ectotherms

  8. Electrocardiogram (ECG) • P= atrial depolarization ~ 0.1 sec atria contracts • QRS= ventricular depolarization ventricles contract(lub), contraction stimulated by Ca++ uptake • T= ventricular repolarization ventricles relax(dub)

  9. Vein Artery Tunica intima Valve Tunica media Tunica externa

  10. Artery vein

  11. Arteries • Carry blood away from the heart. • Thick-walled to withstand hydrostatic pressure of the blood during ventricular systole. • Blood pressure pushes blood through arteries.

  12. Veins • Carry blood to the heart. • Thinner-walled than arteries. • Possess one-way valves that prevent backwards flow of blood. • Blood flow due to body movements, not from blood pressure.

  13. One-Way Valves in Veins

  14. Capillaries capillary vessel

  15. arteriole capillaries venule

  16. arteriole blood capillaries lymphatic capillaries venule lymphatic vessel

  17. Lymph Transport • lacks pump for circulation • relies on activity of skeletal muscles and pulsation of nearby arteries for movement of fluid • 3L of lymph enters blood stream every 24 hrs • proteins easily enter lymphatic system • uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells • lymph nodes where it is cleansed of debris and examined by cells of the immune system (WBC)

  18. interstitial fluid blood capillary lymphatic capillary tissue cell Formation of Lymph

  19. Sphygnomamometer

  20. Measuring Blood Pressure

  21. Superficial Pulse Points- arteries, not veins temporal 60 beats/minute facial carotid • Temporal artery • Facial artery • Common carotid artery • Brachial artery • Radial artery • Femoral artery • Popliteal artery • Posterior tibial artery • Dorsal pedis artery brachial radial femoral popliteal Posterior tibial Dorsal pedis

  22. Blood Artery White blood cells Platelets Red blood cells

  23. Function Blood • Deliver O2 • Remove metabolic wastes • Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume • Protection from blood loss- platelets • Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC • Transport hormones

  24. Blood Plasma-55% Buffy coat-<1% Formed elements-45%

  25. Blood Plasma Components-55% 90% Water 8% Solutes: • Proteins Albumin (60 %) Alpha and Beta Globulins Gamma Globulins fibrinogens • Gas • Electrolytes

  26. Blood Plasma Components • Organic Nutrients Carbohydrates Amino Acids Lipids Vitamins • Hormones • Metabolic waste CO2 Urea

  27. Buffy Coat- <1% • Leukocytes • Platelets

  28. Formed Elements of the Blood-45% • Erythrocytes (red blood cells) • Leukocytes (white blood cells) • Platelets

  29. Erythrocytes

  30. Erythrocyte7.5m in dia ·Anucleate- so can't reproduce; however, repro in red bone marrow ·Hematopoiesis- production of RBC ·Function- transport respiratory gases ·Hemoglobin- quaternary structure, 2  chains and 2  chains ·Lack mitochondria. Why? ·1 RBC contains 250 million hemoglobin molecules ·Men- 5 million cells/mm3 ·Women- 4.5 million cells/mm3 ·Life span 100-120 days and then destroyed in spleen (RBC graveyard)

  31. Types of Leukocytes 4,000-11,000 cells/mm 3 Never let monkeys eat bananas Granulocytes Neutrophils- 40-70% Eosinophils- 1-4% Basophils- <1% Agranulocytes Monocytes- 4-8% Lymphocytes- 20-45%

  32. Diapodisis Leukocyte Squeezing Through Capillary Wall

  33. Fig. 42-21a Parapodium (functions as gill) (a) Marine worm

  34. Fig. 42-21b Gills (b) Crayfish

  35. Fig. 42-21c Coelom Gills Tube foot (c) Sea star

  36. Fluid flow through gill filament Fig. 42-22 Oxygen-poor blood Anatomy of gills Oxygen-rich blood Gill arch Lamella Gill arch Gill filament organization Blood vessels Water flow Operculum Water flow between lamellae Blood flow through capillaries in lamella Countercurrent exchange PO2 (mm Hg) in water 150 120 90 60 30 Gill filaments Net diffu- sion of O2 from water to blood 110 80 50 20 140 PO2 (mm Hg) in blood

  37. Countercurrent exchangesystem

  38. Tracheal Systems Air sacs Fig. 42-23 Tracheae External opening Tracheoles Mitochondria Muscle fiber Body cell Air sac Tracheole Trachea Body wall Air 2.5 µm

  39. Branch of pulmonary vein (oxygen-rich blood) Branch of pulmonary artery (oxygen-poor blood) Fig. 42-24 Terminal bronchiole Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Alveoli (Esophagus) Left lung Trachea Right lung Bronchus Bronchiole Diaphragm Heart SEM Colorized SEM 50 µm 50 µm

  40. Rib cage expands as rib muscles contract Fig. 42-25 Rib cage gets smaller as rib muscles relax Air inhaled Air exhaled Lung Diaphragm INHALATION Diaphragm contracts (moves down) EXHALATION Diaphragm relaxes (moves up)

  41. Fig. 42-26 Air Air Anterior air sacs Trachea Posterior air sacs Lungs Lungs Air tubes (parabronchi) in lung 1 mm EXHALATION Air sacs empty; lungs fill INHALATION Air sacs fill

  42. Cerebrospinal fluid Fig. 42-27 Pons Breathing control centers Medulla oblongata Carotid arteries Aorta Diaphragm Rib muscles

  43. Uptake of Oxygen by Hemoglobin in the Lungs O2 binds to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin High Concentration of O2 in Blood Plasma High pH of the Blood Plasma