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Biology EOC Review 2012. Copies available upon request. Please see Ms. H during TUTORING only!. About the EOC. Required for graduation 15 percent rule is still up for debate You STILL have to pass, or you won’t graduate! Biology EOC has 54 Multiple Choice Questions You have 4 hours

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biology eoc review 2012

Biology EOC Review 2012

Copies available upon request. Please see Ms. H during

TUTORING only!

about the eoc
About the EOC
  • Required for graduation
    • 15 percent rule is still up for debate
    • You STILL have to pass, or you won’t graduate!
  • Biology EOC has 54 Multiple Choice Questions
  • You have 4 hours
    • Don’t rush!
    • Take the time to actually READ the material!
  • Scores won’t come out until school is done.
study strategies
Study Strategies
  • Identify strengths and weaknesses
    • Try to improve your weakest areas, but don’t neglect the other areas!
  • Don’t just “look at” your notes!
    • Interact with the information
    • Find practice problems
    • Rephrase notes in your own words
    • Explain a concept to someone else
study strategies1
Study Strategies
  • DON’T just blindly copy someone to get the practice problems done.
    • YOU are responsible for the information. Are you really going to let someone else think for you and cripple you on test day because you never learned to think?
  • Come to tutoring!
    • If you don’t understand something or can’t explain it in gorey detail, GET HELP!
study strategies2
Study Strategies
  • Form a study group- actually study!
    • Keep it small, be selective of who you study with
    • Divide and conquer- if pressed for time, try to have someone in your group each tackle a particular unit or topic, have them explain it to the group.
    • Meet regularly to discuss the material, but don’t over do it
  • Get a good night’s sleep and eat well (eat a real meal, not chips, candy, and a soda)
  • Make a flash card of things you know you tend to forget. Tape it to your bathroom mirror and recite the things on your flash card every day while you get ready for school.
test taking strategies1
Test taking strategies
  • Process of elimination
    • If you can narrow a question down to two possible choices, you’ve increased your odds of guessing correctly by 50% !
  • If you don’t know a question, SKIP IT and come back later
    • Don’t leave things blank, but make sure you give yourself enough time to answer the questions you do know where you can earn points.
  • Breathe!
  • Breakdown words you don’t know. We’ve talked about prefixes and suffixes all year long
  • Physically cover distracting information with scratch paper or your hand.
test taking strategies2
Test Taking Strategies
  • If you find yourself glazing over, put your pencil down, close your eyes and take a few deep breaths. Sit up straight and try again.
  • DON’T sleep!
  • Take your time! You have four hours to answer 54 questions. That’s a little less than twice the questions we normally give you on an exam.
  • Sit up! You’ll increase the flow of oxygen to your brain and increase your chances of understanding the stuff you’re reading
test taking strategies3
Test Taking Strategies
  • Write in your booklets!
    • Don’t be afraid to take notes, hi-lite, or underline important words
    • Draw diagrams if it helps you break down a problem.
  • Identify what the problem is asking for. Sometimes you will be given a lot of information! It helps to know what you’re looking for in a problem.
test taking strategies4
Test Taking Strategies
  • You are NOT penalized for guessing (unless you guess on the whole test…)
    • Make your best guess if you do not know!
  • Use information from previous problems
    • Sometimes you can find answers to other problems on the test just by answering a different question that might jog your memory
  • Plan something fun to do after the EOC- see a movie, get some ice cream, visit a friend, etc.
    • Don’t party too hard! You’ve got other exams to think about!
unit 1 safety scientific method
Unit 1 : Safety & Scientific Method
  • MSDS- material safety data sheet
    • Dangers/ precautions to take/ action to take
  • Hazard Diamond (NFPA Safety Diamond)
  • Flammability Hazard
  • Stability/Reactivity Hazard
  • Special or Specific Hazard
  • Health Hazards
  • Rated 0- 4, (least to most dangerous)
unit 1 safety scientific method1
Unit 1: Safety/Scientific Method
  • Scientific Method:
    • Observe
    • Question
    • Research
    • Hypothesis
    • Collect Data/ Do experiment
    • Draw conclusions
unit 1 safety scientific method2
Unit 1: Safety/Scientific Method
  • Experimental Design
    • Control
    • Controlled experiment
    • Dependent Variable
    • Independent Variable
  • Draw Conclusions
  • Replication
    • Accuracy Vs. Precision
  • Theory Vs. Hypothesis Vs. Law
unit 2 biochemistry1
Unit 2: biochemistry
  • Macromolecules – smaller molecules form larger ones
  • Carbohydrates (Short term energy)
    • Starches, sugars
    • Monosaccharide
    • -Ose means sugar
  • Lipids (long term energy)
    • glycerol, waxes, steroids, fats, phospholipids
    • Glycerol
  • Proteins (building block, enzymes)
    • (Amino Acids)
    • -Ase means enzyme
  • Nucleic Acids (DNA/RNA)
    • (Nucleotides)
unit 2 biochemistry2
Unit 2: biochemistry
  • Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts
  • Lock and Key mechanism
    • Enzyme fits onto substrate at active site
  • Things that affect enzyme activity:
    • Temperature (Too high- denatures (kills), too cold (slow))
    • pH- optimal range
    • Salts (can denature protein)
    • Inhibitors
      • Competitive- block active site
      • allosteric- change shape of active site to prevent binding.
unit 2 biochemistry3
Unit 2: biochemistry
  • Bonding
    • Ionic: two oppositely charged ions steal/give electrons to each other (easily broken)
    • Covalent: two atoms share electrons
      • Peptide Bonds: usually between amino acids to make proteins
        • Dehydration synthesis- remove a water molecule, create a larger molecule
      • Hydrogen bonds: form between base pairs in DNA- gives DNA
unit 2 biochemistry4
Unit 2: biochemistry
  • Lipids
    • Saturated – most carbon atoms are bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
    • Unsaturated – most carbon atoms are bonded to one hydrogen atom.
unit 3 cells1
Unit 3: Cells
  • Important scientists:
    • Hooke
      • First compound microscope
      • Looked at cork cells
    • Van Leewenhoek
      • First living cells
    • Schleiden
      • Cells make up all parts of plants
    • Virchow
      • Cells come from other cells
    • Schwann
      • Animals are made of cells
  • They developed Cell theory:
    • 1. All living things are made of one or more cells.
    • 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
    • 3. All cells arise from existing cells
  • Homeostasis
unit 3 cells2
Unit 3: Cells

Organelles:

  • Cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Ribosomes
  • Centrioles
  • Chloroplasts
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Rough
    • Smooth
  • Golgi Bodies
  • Lysosome
  • Nucleus
  • Vacuole
  • Cilia/Flagellum
  • Pili
unit 4 osmosis diffusion
Unit 4: osmosis/Diffusion
  • Diffusion: Particles move from high concentration to low
    • Passive Transport (no energy required to move particles)
    • Osmosis: Same thing, but with water
  • Facilitated Diffusion: Some particles are too big to fit through a membrane
    • Use a special hole in membrane to pass down concentration gradient.
  • Active Transport (need energy- ATP)
    • Use proteins to transport things AGAINST concentration gradient.
    • Example: Sodium/Potassium Pump
  • Endo/Exocytosis
unit 4 photosynthesis respiration2
Unit 4: Photosynthesis/Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP

Light Reactions

  • Stage 1: Pigments in chloroplasts capture energy (light) from the sun
    • Water molecules split, O2 is released
  • Stage 2: Convert light energy in electron transport chain (makes ATP/NADPH)
  • Stage 3: Carbon fixation
  • Stage 4: Reduction
  • Stage 5: Regeneration of Co2 Acceptor

Dark Reactions

(Calvin Cycle)

unit 4 photosynthesis respiration3
Unit 4: Photosynthesis/Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP

  • Cellular Respiration: Makes ATP from sugar
    • Opposite reaction of photosynthesis
    • Occurs in Mitochondria
    • Aerobic Respiration
      • In Oxygen
      • Krebs Cycle
      • ETC
      • Makes 32 ATP
    • Anaerobic Respiration- Makes 2 ATP
      • Fermentation (Lactic Acid or Alcoholic)
unit 4 cell cycle
Unit 4: Cell Cycle
  • Mitosis- asexual reproduction
    • Somatic Cells
    • 2 Identical cells
    • IPMAT (Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis)
    • Diploid Cells
    • Spindle fibers
    • Centrioles
  • Cancer- uncontrolled Cell growth
unit 4 mitosis meiosis1
Unit 4: Mitosis/Meiosis
  • Meiosis:
    • Sexual reproduction
    • Make genetically distinct four haploid cells
    • 2 rounds of division
    • Makes Gametes
      • Egg
      • Sperm
    • Recombination
unit 4 mitosis meiosis2
Unit 4: Mitosis/Meiosis

During Meiosis, Chromsomes undergo “Crossing Over”

It allows for genetic variation

unit 5 genetics1
Unit 5: Genetics
  • DNA Replication (in nucleus)
    • DNA copies itself during S Phase
    • Semiconservative
    • Helicase, polymerase, ligase, topoisomerase
    • New strand assembled 5’ 3 ‘
      • Lagging strand 3’  5’
      • Creates okazaki fragments
    • Synthesis pairs complementary base pairs, bind with hydrogen bonds.
      • A-T
      • C-G
unit 5 genetics2
Unit 5: Genetics
  • DNA is a double helix
    • Smallest unit is a nucleotide.
  • Mutations happen when a mistake is made during replication, transcription, or translation
    • Mutation- change in nucleotide base sequence of a gene.
    • Point mutation- change 1 base
    • Frame shift- add or delete base, changes reading frame
    • Germ line mutation occurs in gamete cells
unit 5 genetics3
Unit 5: Genetics
  • Protein synthesis- 2 steps:
    • Transcription
    • Translation
  • Transcription: convert DNA  RNA in nucleus
    • RNA Primase finds TATA box to begin transcription
    • New transcript is mRNA (messenger RNA)
    • mRNA leaves nucleus to find a ribosome
  • Translation: convert mRNA  Protein
    • mRNA associates with large and small ribosomal subunits
    • tRNA brings amino acid that corresponds to codon
    • Chain of AA held together by polypeptide bonds continues until a stop codon is reached
    • Ribosome falls off, protein synthesized.
unit 5 genetics4

Nuclear

membrane

DNA

Transcription

Pre-mRNA

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome

Translation

Protein

Unit 5: Genetics
unit 5 genetics6
Unit 5: Genetics
  • Gregor Mendel- Pea Plant study for patterns of inheritance (color, height, seed shape, etc.)
    • Genotype- alleles of an individual
    • Phenotype- physical appearance of an individual
    • Capital Letter means dominant
    • Lower case letter means recessive.
  • Use punnett squares to figure out inheritance patterns
    • Dominant BB (homozygous dominant) or Bb (heterozygous)
    • Recessive bb (homozygous recessive)

B b

b

b

unit 5 genetics7
Unit 5: Genetics
  • Can use punnett square to study two traits- dihybrid cross: TtPp X TtPp
unit 5 genetics8
Unit 5: Genetics
  • Non-Mendellian Genetics
    • Polygenetic inheritance
      • Eye color
    • Co-Dominance
      • Roan Cows
    • Sex Linked Trait
      • Color blindness
      • Hemophilia
    • Incomplete dominance
      • Pink snapdragons
  • Environmental factors can affect phenotype!
    • Acidity of soil and hydrangeas
    • Arctic Fox
unit 5 genetics9
Unit 5: Genetics
  • Pedigree- diagram that shows a family’s pattern of inheritance
    • Circles- girls
    • Squares- boys
    • Shaded means have trait
    • Half shaded means carrier
unit 5 genetics10
Unit 5: Genetics
  • Gene technology
    • Karyotype
      • Helps to determine trisomy
    • Recombinant DNA
    • Stem Cells
    • DNA Fingerprint
    • Electrophoresis
    • Cloning
  • Human Genome Project
    • Mapped DNA sequence of humans
unit 6 evolution1
Unit 6: Evolution
  • How Earth formed
    • Earth released gas bubble
    • Primordial soup
      • Miller-Urey Experiment
    • Small molecules eventually formed together to make first cells
    • Cyanobacteria photosynthesize to add O2 to atmosphere
    • Prokaryotes form partnerships with other prokaryotes to make first Eukaryotes.
    • To move to land, bacteria and fungi formed partnerships
      • No soil, just large rocks, no organic nutrients on land. Fungi added nutrients.
      • Multicellular eukaryotes evolve
  • Evolution occurs gradually
unit 6 evolution2
Unit 6: Evolution
  • Natural Selection
    • Organisms that are better adapted to environment survive better
    • Lamarck’s theory- physical features of an organism increase or decrease depending on use, traits are then passed on to offspring
      • WRONG!
    • Darwin’s theory- survival of the fittest, organisms that are better suited to their environment survive and pass those traits on to offspring
      • Finches
    • Requirements
      • Specific geographical area (geographic isolation)
      • can not interbreed (reproductive isolation)
      • All populations have genetic variation
      • Individuals tend to have more babies than an environment can support.
      • Adaptations become common in a population because it gives selective advantage.
unit 6 evolution3
Unit 6: Evolution
  • Types of Adaptations:
    • Migration
    • Hibernation
    • Camouflage
    • Mimicry
    • Metamorphosis
  • Homologous structures – different appearance, same ancestor
    • Divergent evolution
  • Analogous Structures- same appearance, different ancestor
    • Convergent Evolution
  • Vestigial Structures- not used by the organism anymore
unit 7 classification1
Unit 7: Classification
  • Taxonomy- science of studying and classifying organisms
  • Binomial Nomenclature (Genus species)
  • 8 levels of classification (Dear King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti)
    • Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order  Family Genus Species
  • Classify based on Morphology (looks), DNA Evidence, Fossil Evidence
    • Ancestral Characteristics- from a common ancestor
    • Derived Characteristics- only in one group
unit 7 classification2

Flowering

plants

Pine trees

Ferns

Mosses

Unit 7: Classification
  • Organize using:
    • Cladogram
    • Phylogentic Tree
  • Dichotomous Key- uses differences between two very similar species to classify
unit 7 classification3

Animalia

Plantae

Fungi

Protista

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Unit 7: Classification
  • 6 Kingdoms:
unit 8 microbiology1

Cell Wall

Capsule

Chromosome

Plasma membrane

Flagellum

Plasmid

Pilus

Unit 8: Microbiology
  • Bacteria (Prokaryotic)
    • Reproduce asexually by fission or sexually with Pili
      • Conjugation allows for passing of antibiotic resistance
    • Archaebacteria -Extremophiles
    • Eubacteria- Photosynthetic
    • Identify with Gram stain, shape, arrangement
      • Gram positive (purple), Gram negative (pink)
      • Shapes: Rod, Coccus, Spirilum
      • Arrangement: Diplo, Staphylo (grapes), Strepto
    • Jobs: Nitrogen fixation, make food, cause illness
      • Kill with antibiotics

Examples: TB, Strep

unit 8 microbiology2
Unit 8: Microbiology
  • Viruses
    • Microscopic disease causing agents
    • Need a Host to reproduce
    • Not alive (no cell type)
    • Very small – can only see with electron microscope
    • Structure- capsid (proteins), envelope (glycoprotein), RNA/DNA, Attachment Spikes
      • Bacteriophage, spherical, tubular, polyhedral
    • Infection:
      • Lytic: Invade host cell, make new viral parts, burst out of cell
      • Lysogenic: invade host cell, integrate to host genome, wait for ideal conditions to reproduce.
    • No cure- but can prevent with Vaccines
    • Examples: Hepatitis, AIDS, Epstein-Barr, Chicken Pox, small pox, flu, herpes, rhino virus
unit 8 microbiology3
Unit 8: Microbiology
  • Protista
    • Very diverse- animal like, plant like
    • Multicellular or single celled
    • Sexual or asexual production
    • Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • Eukaryotic
  • Examples: Euglena, Amoeba, Algae, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates (red tide), Malaria (plasmodium Vivax)
unit 8 microbiology4
Unit 8: Microbiology
  • Fungi (eukaryotic)
    • Heterotrophic
    • Most are multicellular (except yeasts)
    • Sexual Reproduction
    • Hyphae
    • Cell wall made of chitin
    • Extracellular digestion
    • Can be saprophytes (dead tissue), mutualists (mycorrhizae), parasites (athlete’s foot)
      • Decomposers
    • Types:
      • Zygomycotes (mold)
      • Ascomycotes (sac fungi like morels)
      • Basidiomycotes (mushrooms)
      • Deuteromycotes (Bleu cheese, penicillin)
    • Lichens- fungus + algae
unit 9 plants1
Unit 9: Plants

Plant classifications:

  • Non-Vascular
    • Mosses, Liverworts
    • Pollinate by water only (need water for sperm to swim)
  • Seedless vascular
    • Ferns
    • Pollinate by wind/water (water not required)
  • Vascular
    • Angiosperms (flowering plants)
      • Monocots
      • Dicots
      • Wind, Animal pollination
    • Gymnosperms (Naked seeds- cones)
      • Animal pollination
slide68

Growth of plants occur at roots and shoots (meristem)

  • Flowers are reproductive structures
    • Fruits are ripened plant ovaries with seeds
  • Guard cells open stoma in leaves for gas exchange during respiration/photosyntehsis.
unit 9 plants3
Unit 9: Plants
  • Annuals- plants that complete life cycle in one year
  • Perenials- complete life cycle over many growing seasons.
  • Growth- plants germinate if given right soil/water/temp conditions
    • Tropisms are factors affecting growth
      • Thigmotropism- touch response when growing (vines)
      • Phototropism- bend toward light
      • Geotropism- bend according to gravitational pull of earth
      • Photoperiodism- growth occurs according to how long plant has been exposed to light.
unit 9 plants4
Unit 9: Plants
  • Important hormones:
    • Auxin – control phototropism
    • Giberellin – plant growth, germination
    • Abscisic Acid – slows/stops growth in times of environmental stress
  • Defense
    • 1st- secrete chemical that destroys bacterial cell wall
    • 2nd- Lignin- forms a “jail cell” around infected plant cell
    • 3rd- kill neighboring cells to prevent further spread of infection.
unit 10 animals1
Unit 10: Animals
  • Characteristics of Animals:
    • Heterotrophy
    • Mobility
    • Multicellularity
    • Diploidy
    • Sexual reproduction
    • Blastula formation
    • No cell wall
    • Made of tissues
  • Coelom- internal body cavity
  • Parthenogenesis
  • Notochord- internal rod in spinal column, precursor to spinal cord.
unit 10 animals2
Unit 10: Animals
  • Invertebrates
    • Sponges (porifera)
    • Cnidarians (coral, jellyfish)
    • Annelid (earthworm – segmented body)
    • Echinoderm (starfish)
    • Mollusks
      • Gastropod
      • Cephalopod
      • Bivalve
    • Chordates
    • Arthropods
      • Insects
      • Crustaceans
unit 10 animals3
Unit 10: Animals
  • Vertebrates
    • Fish
      • Ectothermic
      • 2 chambered heart
    • Amphibians
      • Ectothermic
      • 3 chambered heart
      • Need water to hatch babies
    • Reptiles
      • Ectothermic
      • 3 or 4 chambered heart
      • Do not need water for eggs
    • Birds
      • Endothermic
      • 4 chambered heart
      • Eggs
      • Feathers
      • Keeled sternum
    • Mammals
      • Monotremes
      • Marsupials
      • Endothermic
      • 4 chambered heart
      • Fur
      • Live young
      • Nurse young
unit 11 body systems1
Unit 11: Body Systems
  • Skeletal- provides support to body, made of bones
  • Muscular system- movement, made of muscles
  • Endocrine system- secretes hormones to tell body what/when to do something, made of endocrine glands and hormones
  • Nervous system- takes sensory input, processes it, and tells body how to respond. (brain, nerves)
  • Digestive system- digests/absorbs nutrients (stomach, pancreas, liver, intestines)
slide77

Circulatory system- transports O2/CO2 in body, delivers nutrients from digestive system, immune response

  • Immune system- body’s defense against pathogens
  • Reproductive system- allows human body to reproduce
  • Integumentary system- skin, part of immune systems.
  • Excretory System- rids body of wastes
  • Respiratory System- gas exchange of O2/CO2
unit 11 body systems2
Unit 11: Body Systems
  • 4 Tissue Types
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
unit 12 ecology1
Unit 12: Ecology
  • Ecosystem Vs. Population Vs. Community
    • Biotic factors
    • Abiotic factors
  • Sucession
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  • Relationships
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
    • Commensalism
  • Producers can photosynthesize (plants, algae, SOME protists, SOME bacteria)
  • Consumers eat (everything else)
unit 12 ecology2
Unit 12 Ecology
  • Energy- only 10% gets passed on to next trophic level
    • Producers
    • Primary Consumers
    • Secondary Consumers
  • Biogeochemical Cycles
    • Water
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
  • Eutrophication
  • Biomagniciation
unit 12 ecology3
Unit 12 Ecology
  • Human Environmental Impact
    • Global warming
    • Air pollution/CO2 Emissions
    • Pollution of water
    • Loss of natural resources and wildlife
    • Increased cancer risk due to hole in ozone layer
  • Various Biomes (large ecosytems)
    • Tundra
    • Taiga
    • Desert
    • Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • Savana (grass land)
    • Chaparal
    • Aquatic Biomes
unit 12 ecology4
Unit 12: Ecology
  • Population changes as available resources change/are limited
    • Carrying Capacity
    • Exponential growth
    • Punctuated equilibrium
    • R strategists
    • K Strategists
  • Biodiversity