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Biology EOC Review PowerPoint Presentation
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Biology EOC Review

Biology EOC Review

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Biology EOC Review

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  1. Biology EOC Review

  2. 1. What is a controlled experiment?

  3. What is a controlled experiment? • Controlled experiment– tests effect of a single variable while keeping all other variables the same

  4. 2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

  5. 2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? hypothesis– a possible explanation to a scientific question. (an “educated guess” based on prior knowledge and observations) Theory– a well tested and supported hypothesis (Cell theory, theory of Natural Selection, Atomic theory)

  6. Observation classified into two types: • Quantitative– involve numbers, counting, measuring objects. • Qualitative– involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted such as color or texture

  7. 3. When conducting experiments, sometimes the results are not consistent and may yield results that are obviously wrong. What might be some typical sources of unavoidable errors?

  8. 3. When conducting experiments, sometimes the results are not consistent and may yield results that are obviously wrong. What might be some typical sources of unavoidable errors? • Human error (mistakes in conducting experiment) • Small sample tested • Contaminatedsample

  9. 4. Why is the cell membrane referred to as being semi-permeable?

  10. 4. Why is the cell membrane referred to as being semi-permeable? • Most membranes are selectively permeable (some materials can pass across membrane and others cannot) like a “sieve”

  11. 5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed of? (Draw a diagram and label)

  12. 5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed of? (Draw a diagram and label) Proteins act like passageways for larger molecules to pass through membrane

  13. 6. What is an enzyme and how does it speed up a chemical reaction?

  14. 6. What is an enzyme and how does it speed up a chemical reaction? Enzymes– specialized proteins that act as biological catalysts (catalysts– a substance that speeds up rate of chemical reaction by lowering a reactions activation energy)

  15. Enzymes are very specific Name of enzyme derived from reaction it catalyzes Enzymes are not used up in a chemical reaction.

  16. 7. What conditions affect the action of an enzyme (name three things)

  17. 7. What conditions affect the action of an enzyme (name three things) • Temperature • pH • Presence of substrate

  18. 8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each type)

  19. 8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each type) Prokaryotic cell- no nucleus (bacteria) Eucaryotic cell- has nucleus

  20. 9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins?

  21. 9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins? Endoplasmic Reticulum- cell’s internal transport system (Rough ER- (has ribosomes attached) and Smooth ER (no ribosomes) Golgi Apparatus- “post office” of the cell

  22. 10. What is the role of mitochondria in the cell?

  23. 10. What is the role of mitochondria in the cell? • Mitochondria- found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Use energy from food to power growth, development and movement. Powerhouse of cell

  24. 11. What kind of cells might have a high number of mitochondria?

  25. 11. What kind of cells might have a high number of mitochondria? Cells that need a lot of energy. Heart cells, sperm cells, muscle cells, etc.

  26. 12. What are the four types of organic molecules found in living things?

  27. 12. What are the four types of organic molecules found in living things? • Four groups of organic compounds found in living things (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins) • Macromolecules formed by process called polymerization (large compounds built be joining together smaller ones) • Monomers– smaller compounds • Polymers– large molecules

  28. 13. Large macromolecules (polymers) are made (synthesized) from smaller building blocks called monomers. What are the building blocks for: • Proteins- • Carbohydrates- • Nucleic Acids-

  29. 13. Large macromolecules (polymers) are made (synthesized) from smaller building blocks called monomers. What are the building blocks for: • Proteins- amino acids • Carbohydrates- glucose (single-sugar, momosaccharide) • Nucleic Acids- nucleotide

  30. 14. Proteins are all made from amino acids. What makes one protein different from another?

  31. 14. Proteins are all made from amino acids. What makes one protein different from another? The number of amino acids and the sequence of amino acids (like letters in an alphabet spelling different words)

  32. 15. What effect does temperature have on proteins?

  33. 15. What effect does temperature have on proteins? It changes the 3-dimensional structure of the protein (this will also change the way the protein functions) Like when you cook a steak or eggs- it changes the consistency. It may also stop the action of an enzyme- snake venom

  34. 16. What organelle is responsible for photosynthesis and what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight?

  35. 16. What organelle is responsible for photosynthesis and what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight? Chloroplasts- found in plants and some other organisms (none found in animals and fungi) Green pigment- chlorophyll found in photosynthetic membranes

  36. 17. What is mitosis and what types of cells undergo mitosis?

  37. 17. What is mitosis and what types of cells undergo mitosis? Division of cells forming two identical new daughter cells (body cells) 2n → 2n Part of Cell Cycle PMAT (stages) followed by cytokinesis

  38. 18. What is the difference between diploid cells and haploid cells?

  39. 18. What is the difference between diploid cells and haploid cells? Diploid (2n)- two sets of chromosomes (normal number in body cells) Haploid (n)- half the number of chromosomes (found in sex cells-gametes)

  40. 19. What process produces diploid cells and which produces haploid cells?

  41. 19. What process produces diploid cells and which produces haploid cells? Mitosis- makes diploid cells 2n → 2n Meiosis- makes haploid sex cells (gametes) 2n → n + n

  42. 20. What is meiosis and what does it result in?

  43. 20. What is meiosis and what does it result in? Process of producing sex cells (gametes) Results in four haploid (n) cells (sperm or egg)

  44. 21. Explain why this is a good representation of fertilization: n + n =2n

  45. 21. Explain why this is a good representation of fertilization: n + n =2n Shows two haploid cells (gametes) coming together to produce diploid (2n) cell-zygote n + n =2n

  46. 22. What is meant be segregation when sex cells (gametes) are produced?

  47. 22. What is meant be segregation when sex cells (gametes) are produced? Chromosomes segregate (separate) during meiosis.

  48. 23. What is independent assortment?

  49. 23. What is independent assortment? Each of the chromosome pairs separate independently of the others (like flipping a coin each time to determine which one to use)

  50. 24. What is a mutation?