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Events/Battles of WWII

Events/Battles of WWII. Ch. 17 Sec. 1-5. From Appeasement to War. Ch. 17 Sec. 1. Aggression G oes Unchecked. Aggressive actions by Germany, Japan and Italy were met with verbal protests Hitler, leaders of Japan, and Mussolini saw desire for peace as a weakness

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Events/Battles of WWII

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  1. Events/Battles of WWII Ch. 17 Sec. 1-5

  2. From Appeasement to War Ch. 17 Sec. 1

  3. Aggression Goes Unchecked • Aggressive actions by Germany, Japan and Italy were met with verbal protests • Hitler, leaders of Japan, and Mussolini saw desire for peace as a weakness • Japan overruns Manchuria and Eastern China • Italy Invades Ethiopia • Hitler went against Treaty of Versailles- • Built up German military • Sent troops in “demilitarized” Rhineland • Quit paying WWI reparations • All these actions were met with appeasement

  4. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis • Agreed to fight Soviet Communism • Agreed to not interfere with one another’s plans for territorial expansion • Set the path for these anti-democratic aggressor powers to take bolder steps

  5. Spain Collapses into Civil War • Starting in 1931 unrest boiled over polarized public opinion over setting up a republic after forcing the king to abdicate • 1936 Francisco Franco led a revolt that started the civil war • Other nations soon jumped in to support both sides • Soviet Union, anti-Nazi Germans, and anti-Fascist Italians joined Spanish Loyalist • US, Britain, and France remained neutral • Hitler used his modern warfare to help Franco take power • Once in power- Franco set up a Fascist dictatorship similar to Hitler and Mussolini

  6. Continued German Aggression • One of Hitler’s goals- bring all German people into the Third Reich • Took steps to gain more “living space” for Germans • Annexed Austria • 1938 Ready to engineer the Anschluss • Violated Treaty of Versailles • Some Austrians favored Annexation • Western democracies took no action • Annexed Sudetenland • 3 mill Germans lived in Sudetenland • Western democracies did nothing

  7. “Peace for Our Time” • 1938: Munich Conference • British and French leaders chose to appease Hitler • Gave Hitler Sudetenland • Hitler assured Britain/France he had no further plans of expansion • “Peace for Our Time” – Chamberlain thought he had fixed the problems of Europe • Winston Churchill- “They choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have a war.”

  8. Europe Plunges Toward War • March 1939: Hitler broke promise- took over rest of Czechoslovakia • Realized appeasement would not work- promised to protect Poland • August 1939: Nazi-Soviet Pact • Hitler announced a non-aggression pact with enemy- Joseph Stalin • Based not on friendship but mutual need- Hitler feared communism as Stalin feared Fascism • Each man felt he was protecting his country • September 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland • Two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany

  9. The Axis Advances Ch. 17 Sec. 2

  10. Axis Powers Attack • Sept. 1, 1939: Nazi forces stormed into Poland from the West • Stalin’s forces invaded from the East • Within 1 month, Poland surrendered • Britain and France declared war on Germany • Soviet Union set up military bases in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and seized part of Finland

  11. Miracle at Dunkirk • April 1940: Hitler launched Blitzkrieg against Norway and Denmark • Next he took Netherlands and Belgium • May 1940: German forces surprised French and British by attacking through Ardennes Forest (Belgium) • Trapped between Nazi army and English Strait • English sent any available vassal to pick up troops • Saved more than 300,000 troops to Britain

  12. France Falls • Germans headed South to Paris • Italians declared war on France and attacked from the south • June 22, 1940: France signed surrender papers in same train car Germany signed armistice to end WWI • Some French escaped to Britain to set up a Government in Exile under Charles de Gaulle • They worked to liberate their homeland

  13. Operation Sea Lion • Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister • Hitler made plans for Operation Sea Lion- invasion of Britain • August 1940: Germany began daily bombing of southern coast of Britain • After a month, Germany began bombing London instead of military in south • Citizens carried on with everyday life- did not let Germans see them sweat

  14. Sea Lion, Africa, and Balkans • May 1941: Operation Sea Lion deemed a failure • Germans could not get air superiority over Britain • British morale remained high • Sept. 1940: Axis Armies moved in to North Africa and Balkans • Italy’s colony in Libya attacked Egypt- British resisted • Hitler sent General Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” who pushed British back to Cairo, Egypt • Oct. 1940: Italians invaded Greece- needed German reinforcements by 1941 • 1941: Axis Powers held most of Europe

  15. Germany Invades the Soviet Union • Hitler turned forces from failure to take Britain to invade Soviet Union • One of his costliest mistakes • June 1941: Hitler nullified Nazi-Soviet Pact- Operation Barbarossa (named after Frederick Barbarossa) • About 3 million German soldiers invaded- caught Stalin unprepared • Stalled at Leningrad (St. Petersburg)- 2 ½ year battle • Britain opened a second front to relieve Stalin • Hitler failed to take Leningrad

  16. Japan attacks US • US sympathizers found ways around Neutrality Acts to help British when they stood alone • March 1941: FDR and Congress passed Lend-Lease Act • Aug. 1941: Roosevelt signed Atlantic Charter with Churchill • Japan was frustrated at US’s Neutrality Acts because if affected their progress into French Indochina and Dutch East Indies

  17. With talks at a standstill, Gen. Tojo ordered an attack on US • Dec. 7, 1941: Japanese planes bombed American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • US declared war on Japan • Dec. 11, 1941: Germany and Italy declared war on US as Japans allies • Japanese initially successful capturing Philippines and other US islands and British lands

  18. The Allies Turn the Tide Ch. 17 Sec. 3

  19. Allies Turn to Total War • Governments increase political power • Factories started making war products • Programs to ration food • Raised money with War Bonds drives • Production ended unemployment from depression • Government limited rights of citizens, censored the press, used propaganda to win public support • Women replaced men in the factories and helped in war efforts

  20. Allies Forge Ahead • 1942-1943 Turning point in the war • Allies win victories on four fronts- Pacific, North Africa and Italy, Soviet Union, and France • Pacific- Battle of Coral Sea- First set back for Japanese • Enemy ships never even saw each other: battle fought by plane from aircraft carriers • Continued wins at Battle of Midway • Japan was unable to launch any more offensive attacks

  21. Battle of Midway

  22. Big Three Plot their Strategy • “Big Three” (US, Britain, France) agreed to focus on finishing the war in Europe before ending the war in Asia • Churchill and Roosevelt feared Stalin wanted to dominate Europe/ Stalin believed West wanted to end communism • Nazi-Soviet Pact borders stood • Churchill/Roosevelt would not open a second front against Germany to relieve Soviet Union troops

  23. Allied Victory in North Africa • British led by General Bernard Montgomery fought “Desert Fox” Rommel • Nov. 1942: Battle of El Alamein- Allies halted Axis advances and drove them back to Libya and Tunisia • May 1943, General Dwight Eisenhower advanced into Tunisia and forced Rommel to surrender

  24. Allies Advance through Italy • Allies from North crossed to Mediterranean into Italy • American/ British troops landed first in Sicily and then southern Italy • Defeated Italian forces within a month • Italians overthrew Mussolini and signed armistice • Hitler sent troops to aid northern Italy and rescue Mussolini • Allies fought next 18 months to take the north- helped to weaken German army

  25. Germans Defeated at Stalingrad • German troops stalled outside Leningrad 1941 • 1942 Hitler launched new offensive- aimed for the rich oil fields of the south • Only made it to Stalingrad • One of the costliest battles of the war • Hitler and Stalin both determined • Nov. 1942: Soviets encircled their attackers and cutoff supply lines • Jan. 1943: German commander surrendered • By early 1944: Soviet troops advancing to East Europe

  26. Allies Push Towards Germany • June 6, 1944: D-Day • Paratroopers dropped in night before • At dawn, thousands crossed English Channel under fire towards Normandy • Aug. Gen. Patten helped Brit./Amer. Troops break through German forces towards Paris • Other Allied forces sailed in from Italy • French resistance rose in Paris to help • Aug. 25, 1944 Allied troops entered Paris • Rest of France was free within a month

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