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WWII. The World Between the Wars. A Struggle for Change in Latin America. The Mexican Revolution Desires for land, better wages, and democratic reforms Result: a new constitution that set goals for future social and political changes Nationalism The Good Neighbor Policy.

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a struggle for change in latin america
A Struggle for Change in Latin America
  • The Mexican Revolution
  • Desires for land, better wages, and democratic reforms
  • Result: a new constitution that set goals for future social and political changes
  • Nationalism
  • The Good Neighbor Policy
nationalist movements in africa and the middle east
Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East
  • Africa – opposition to imperialism spread as the Pan-African and negritude movements developed.
  • Modernization in Turkey and Iran
  • Pan-Arab movements sought Arab unity and freedom from foreign domination
  • Promises in Palestine
india seeks self rule
India Seeks Self-Rule
  • Moves toward independence – Amritsar massacre
  • Mohandas Gandhi and The Salt March
  • Muslims become fearful of then Hindu majority and began to call for a separate Muslim state
upheavals in china
Upheavals in China
  • The Chinese Republic was crippled by feuding warlords, a collapsed economy, famine, and increasing foreign influence
  • May Fourth Movement
  • 1927 – Civil war erupts between the Guomindang and Communists.
  • Japanese invasion
empire of the rising sun
Empire of the Rising Sun
  • 1920s- Japan’s political parties and democratic parliament grew stronger
  • Great Depression fueled dissatisfaction among militarists and extreme nationalists
  • 1930s- the Japanese military dominated a government that emphasized obedience to the emperor, service to the state, and a policy of imperial expansion
ineffectiveness of the league of nations
Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations
  • No control over major conflicts
  • No progress in disarmament
  • No effective military force
france pursues security

France Pursues Security

The Maginot Line

locarno pact 1925
Locarno Pact: 1925

Stresemann (Ger.)

Chamberlain (Br.)

  • Guaranteed the borders of France, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles

Briand (Fr.)

kellogg briand pact 1928
Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928
  • 15 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes
  • Problem – no way of enforcement

Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life.

  • A form of extreme right-wing ideology.
  • It celebrates the nation or the race as an organic community transcending all other loyalties.
  • Powerful and continuing nationalism.
    • Constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, etc.
    • Flags are seen everywhere.
  • It uses organized violence to suppress opposition.
    • Glorification of force.
    • Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism.
    • Is anti-democratic.

From the German Point of View

Lost – but not forgotten country

Into your heart you are to dig these words as into stone; Which we have lost may not truly be lost!


The “Stab-In-The-Back” Theory.

German soldiers are dissatisfied

adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler
  • Totalitarian Rule
  • SS troops and Gestapo helped Hitler control all aspects of German life
  • Economic Programs
  • Nazis indoctrinate young people with their ideologies (like Fascists and Communists)
  • Nazi’s sought to purify German culture
  • Campaign against the Jews
  • November 9 and 10, 1938 Kristallnacht
  • “ The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I wasn’t a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Than they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up…Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for me. By that time, there was no one left to speak up.”
      • Martin Niemoller
dictators challenge world peace
Dictators Challenge World Peace
  • Japan seizes Manchuria in 1931 and withdrew from the League of Nations
  • 1936 Italy: Mussolini conquered Ethiopia (finally took revenge on them)
  • Germans: Hated the Versailles treaty. Hitler built up their military and sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland bordering France.
italy invades ethiopia 1935
Italy Invades Ethiopia, 1935

Emperor Haile Selassie

dictators challenge world peace1
Dictators Challenge World Peace
  • Appeasement: giving in to the demands of an aggressor to keep peace.
  • Some westerners viewed Hitler as a defense against a worse evil- Soviet Communism
  • Pacifism
  • Neutrality Acts (U.S.A.): avoid involvement in European war.
  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis: Italy, Germany, and Japan
spanish civil war
Spanish Civil War
  • Nationalists:
    • Fascists
    • Supported by Germany and Italy
    • German air raid on Guernica
    • Triumphant in 1939 and set up a fascist dictatorship like those of Hitler and Mussolini
  • Loyalists
    • Supported by U.S. and Great Britain (even though they remained neutral)
    • Republic
    • Communists
    • Socialists
    • Marxists
german aggression continues
German Aggression Continues
  • Anschluss: Union of Germany and Austria
  • Hitler annexes the Sudetenland in 1938.
  • The Munich Pact


Removal of the border

appeasement the munich agreement 1938
Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
  • Now we have “peace for our time” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.
axis powers rome berlin tokyo
Axis Powers: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo
  • Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin
  • Germany “annexes” Austria then Czechoslovakia  finally Poland
    • (Neville Chamberlain*)
    • Britain and France are unwilling to challenge either Italy or Germany (appeasement)
  • But then… With the invasion of POLAND, England & France declare WAR
europe plunges into war
Europe Plunges Into War
  • 1939 Appeasement failed: Germany took over all of Czechoslovakia.
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact
    • Stalin and Hitler agreed mot to fight if the other went to war
    • To divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe
  • Invasion of Poland
    • September 1, 1939
    • Britain and France declare war
why war came
Why War Came?
  • Axis aggression
  • Appeasement policy
  • Revision of 1919 Versailles treaty
  • Why did western democracies fail to respond forcefully to the Nazi threat?
  • Could WWII have been avoided?
early axis gains
Early Axis Gains
  • Blitzkrieg September 1, 1939

German troops march into Warsaw

early axis gains1
Early Axis Gains
  • The “Phony War”
  • Miracle of Dunkirk
  • France Falls – June 22, 1940

Dunkirk evacuated June 4, 1940

the french resistance
The French Resistance

The French Resistance Flag

Charles de Gaulle

africa and the balkans
Africa and the Balkans
  • Axis powers have a string of success in 1941 and 1942 in Africa
  • Italy invades Greece and Yugoslavia
  • By 1914 the Axis powers or their allies controlled most of Western Europe
  • General Erwin Rommel – the Desert Fox
the battle of britain and the blitz
The Battle of Britain and the Blitz
  • Winston Churchill
  • Operation Sea Lion
  • The London Blitz
  • Failure of Operation Sea Lion
early war efforts
Early War Efforts
  • LONDON BLITZ- Germany wanted to break the spirit of the British by bombing the capital.
  • German planes bombed London for almost a year (1940-1941)
  • Operation Sea Lion was a failure.
  • British resolve stronger than ever.
    • Winston Churchill**
operation barbarossa the conquest of the soviet union hitler s biggest mistake
Operation Barbarossa: The Conquest of the Soviet Union – Hitler’s biggest mistake
  • 3,000,000 German troops caught Stalin unprepared.
the siege of leningrad
The Siege of Leningrad

2 ½ year siege of Leningrad, Stalin urged Churchill to open up a second front.

seizing the opportunity
Seizing the Opportunity
  • During the early part of the war, Japan seized the chance to grab European colonies in Asia.
  • Imperialism had a hand in the reasons that Japan went to war….

1937 December, Chinese dead bodies on the shore of Yangtze River with a Japanese soldier standing nearby


Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan…

..With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.

japanese victories
Japanese Victories

European and American possessions in the Pacific fell one by one to the Japanese.

occupied lands
Occupied Lands
  • Nazi Europe
    • Hitler set up puppet governments in Western European countries run by “Aryans” or related “races.”
    • Slavs of Eastern Europe were shoved aside to provide more “living space” for Germans.
    • Slavs and others were forced to work as slave laborers in German war industries.
  • Hitler’s “final solution” of the Jewish problem” (genocide)
  • Other targets included Slavs, Gypsies, and the mentally ill
  • To accomplish this goal, Hitler had special “death camps” built in Poland
the allied war effort
The Allied War Effort
  • The Big Three- Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin.
  • Agree to finish the war in Europe before turning to Asia
total war
Total War
  • Factories stopped making cars or refrigerators, instead making airplanes or tanks.
  • Governments rationed consumer goods
  • Government limited the rights of citizens, censored the press, and used propaganda to win public support.
  • Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians were placed in internment camps
  • On the positive side, while the war brought hardships, it ended the unemployment of the depression era.
women help win the war
Women Help Win the War
  • Replaced men in essential jobs
  • Built ships and planes, produced munitions, and staffed offices
  • Served in the armed forces driving trucks and ambulances, delivering airplanes, decoding messages, and assisting antiaircraft sites

Lily Litvak: Soviet pilot, shot down 12 German planes before she herself was killed.

turning points
Turning Points
  • During 1942 and 1943, the Allies won several victories that would turn the tide of battle and push back the Axis powers. The first of these turning points came in North Africa and Italy.

Allied invasion of Italy, July 1943

El Alamein: British General Bernard Montgomery finally stopped Rommel’s advance.

el alamein
El Alamein

General Ernst Rommel: The “Desert Fox”

British General Bernard Montgomery: “Monty”

invasion of italy
Invasion of Italy
  • Victory in North Africa let the Allies leap across the Mediterranean into Italy
  • British and American forces defeated Italian forces in one month
the red army resists
The Red Army Resists

Another major turning point in the war occurred in the Soviet Union. Germans were stalled outside Moscow and Leningrad. In 1942, Hitler launched a new offensive.

  • Stalingrad: One of the costliest battles in the war.

The battle cost the Germans 300,000 troops. The Red Army took the offensive and drove the invaders out of the Soviet Union.

invasion of france
Invasion of France
  • By 1944, the Allies were at last ready to open up a second front in Europe – with the invasion of France.
  • Allied troops prepared in England
  • General Eisenhower led the Allied troops June 6, 1944 – D-Day – across the English Channel

1942-1945: The War in the Pacific.

USN Dauntlesses Dive bombers in the pacific

war in the pacific
War in the Pacific
  • Bataan Death March – 68 mile march to prison camp, killing several hundred American soldiers and about 10,000 Filipino
  • Battle of Midway – turning point
  • “Island Hopping” campaign – MacArthur's strategy
june 1942 the battle of midway
June 1942: The Battle of Midway

The Battle of Midway was the 1st major US victory in the Pacific & a major turning point in the war.


The US Fleet sinks four Japanese carriers.

  • After Midway the US goes on the offense (turning point)
the island hopping
The Island Hopping

Iwo Jima after the US invasion

Macarthur's plan is to take only the island you need, let the Japanese starve on the other islands.


Landing operations in the Solomon Islands

the nazis defeated
The Nazis Defeated
  • The Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s last success, the battle only delayed the allied advance
  • Allied powers on the west and Soviets on the East cross into Germany
  • Mussolini is captured and executed and Hitler commits suicide
  • V-E Day May 8, 1945
us in the war in europe
US in the War in Europe

Germany’s Last Stand: Battle of the Bulge delayed the inevitable defeat of the Germans

The Western Allies take Paris and invade Germany.

1945: US soldiers on parade in Paris

defeat of japan
Defeat of Japan
  • With the war won in Europe, the Allies poured their resources into defeating Japan.
  • Kamikaze pilots
  • Hiroshima – August 6, 1945
  • Nagasaki – August 8, 1945
  • V-J Day – August 14, 1945
  • Why did Truman use the bomb?
Japan resorts to suicide attacks to increase US casualties.

Though the Japanese were losing, they had 2 million troops and a determination to fight to the last man, woman, and child.


The US makes the decision to use the atomic

bomb on Japan in order to limit US casualties.

The Enola Gay landing at Tinian Island after dropping the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima- August 6, 1945

shall reap the whirl wind
…shall reap the whirl wind.”

The Japanese were going to continue, but on August 10, 1945, the Emperor broke with the tradition of staying out of the picture, and called for the war to end.

horrors of the holocaust
Horrors of the Holocaust

Rudolf Hoess, Nazi commander at Auschwitz, would later admit that he had supervised the killing of some two and a half million people

nuremburg trials
Nuremburg Trials

Execution of Jews by Nazis, used as evidence during the trials

German officers on trial: Goring, Hess, von Riddentrop, and Keitel.

Second row: Donitz, Raeder, Schirach, Saukel

allied occupation of germany
Allied Occupation of Germany

Allies in Dusseldorf

united nations
United Nations
  • Organization to ensure peace
  • Eventually takes on many other world problems: preventing the outbreak of disease, improving education, protecting refugees, and aiding nations to develop economically
the cold war
The Cold War
  • Capitalism vs. Communism
  • The “iron curtain”
the truman doctrine
The Truman Doctrine
  • Policy that guided the United States for decades
  • Americans would resist Soviet expansion in Europe or elsewhere in the world
  • Main idea: Containment, limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet control

George Kennan

- proposed


the arms race
The Arms Race
  • NATO
  • Balance of power to “balance of terror”