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Earth’s Surface: Unit 1. The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of soil. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres. What on Earth?.

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earth s surface unit 1

Earth’s Surface: Unit 1

The Big Idea:

Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of soil.

what on earth

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

What on Earth?
  • Earth systems- all of the matter, energy, and processes within Earth’s boundary.

http://www.isws.illinois.edu/nitro/images/biggraph.jpg

http://www.eduweb.com/portfolio/earthsystems/images/print_main_icon.jpg

geosphere

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

Geosphere
  • Geosphere- mostly solid, rock part of Earth. It extends from the center to the surface of Earth.
    • Layers of Geosphere
      • Crust
      • Mantle
      • Core
layers of the geosphere
Layers of the Geosphere
  • Crust - 5-10 km (ocean) 35-70 km (continental), made of silicates, LEAST DENSE
  • Mantle-about 2900 km thick, very slow flowing, solid rock, made of silicate minerals that are denser than the crust.
  • Core- Outer : liquid layer 3500 km thick

Inner: solid, dense core made of Fe & Ni

MOST DENSE

got water

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

Got Water?
  • Hydrosphere- liquid water including oceans, lakes, rivers, marshes, streams, swamps, ground water, rain & water droplets in clouds.
    • 97% of all water on Earth is the saltwater found in oceans.
    • Oceans cover 71% of Earth.

http://earth.rice.edu/mtpe/hydro/hydrosphere/why_images/folsom_dam.jpg

ice ice baby

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

http://www.earth-prints.org/image/criopic.jpg

Ice, Ice Baby
  • Cryosphere- made up of all the frozen water on Earth. All the ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves, icebergs, & permafrost.

http://www.eduweb.com/portfolio/earthsystems/cryosphere/images/bargraph.gif

what a gas

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

What a Gas!
  • Atmosphere- made of invisible gases that surround Earth.

The atmosphere is about

  • 78% Nitrogen
  • 21% Oxygen
  • 1% many other gases

(Ar, CO2, & water vapor).

http://spaceguard.rm.iasf.cnr.it/NScience/neo/images/AtmosGraph.gif

living together

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

Living Together
  • Biosphere- made up of living things and the areas of Earth where they are found.

http://www.uwphoto.net/content/si/wp_large/si04-666.jpg

http://creationwiki.org/Symbiosis

what s the matter

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

What’s the Matter?

Energy Budget- formed with movement of energy through Earth’s system.

  • All of the five spheres of Earth interact as matter & energy change & cycle through the system. (Think of the water, nitrogen & carbon cycles)
  • Trace the flow of energy through Earth’s system.
break it down

Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

Break It Down
  • Weathering- breakdown of rock material by physical and chemical processes.

Types of Weathering

1. Physical

2. Chemical

http://www.geol.umd.edu/~piccoli/10http://shetzers.com/photo-galleries-and-images/utah-pictures/0/Image67.jpg

http://shetzers.com/photo-galleries-and-images/utah-pictures/

physical weathering

Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

Physical weathering
  • process by which rock is broken down into smaller pieces by physical changes, but does NOT change composition.
    • Ice wedging (frost wedging)- crack growth
    • Exfoliation
    • Animals-mix soil, air & drainage
    • Plants-reason crack growth
    • Wind-moves sediment
    • Abrasion
physical weathering1

Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

http://nondot.org/sabre/pics/2001-12-16-India-Trip/2002-01-01/02%20-%20On%20the%20Road%20Again/thumbs/75%20-%20Falling%20rocks.jpg

Physical Weathering

Water

  • Abrasion -breaking down & wearing away of rock material by the mechanical action of other rocks.

http://www.eeo.ed.ac.uk/undergraduate/field/peasebay/pebbles.jpg

Wind

Gravity

http://schools-wikipedia.org/images/922/92219.jpg

chemical weathering

Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

Chemical Weathering
  • breakdown of rocks by chemical reactions which changes composition & appearance.
    • Oxidation-chemicals in rock combine with oxygen in the air or in water, sometimes indicated by color change.
    • Acid precipitation-occurs when strong acids fall to Earth as rain, sleet, or snow.

http://www.photosfan.com/images/caves-stalactites-and-stalagmites.jpg

http://www.washingtonpublishers.com/YesResorts/utah.jpg

go with the flow

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Erosion & Deposition

Go with the Flow
  • Erosionprocess by which sediment & other materials are moved from one place to another.
  • Depositionprocess by which eroded material is dropped.

http://www.chartiersgreenway.net/hydrology.htm

slide15

Floodplain –flat area; fertile

Meander –curves & bends

Oxbow–a meander that is cut off

Delta- fan shaped pattern of deposited sediment

Shoreline- place where land & water meet

Groundwater-water below Earth’s surface

slide16

http://www.ndsu.edu/fargo_geology/mass_wasting/creep&flow.htmhttp://www.ndsu.edu/fargo_geology/mass_wasting/creep&flow.htm

Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity

Alluvial fan- fan shaped deposit that forms on dry land

Creep-extremely slow movement of material downslope.

Mudflow-rapid movement of a large mass of mud due to lots of rain

shaping the earth

Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity

Shaping the Earth
  • Glacial drift -general term for all materials carried & deposited by a glacier.
    • Alpine glaciers- cause U shaped valleys & rugged landscapes.
    • Continental glaciers - form flat landscapes

http://glaciers1011r1.wikispaces.com/Alpine+Glacier

http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0311164/contglac.htm

slide18

Unit 1 Lesson5 Soil Formation

  • Soil- loose mixture of rock fragments, organic matter, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation.
  • Soil profile - vertical section of soil that shows all the different layers.
  • Soil horizon - Each layer in the soil profile that has different physical properties.

http://www.hutton.ac.uk/research/groups/environmental-and-biochemical-sciences/soil-chemistry-and-mineralogy

http://www.keywordpicture.com/keyword/chernozem%20soil%20profile/

soil horizons

Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

Soil Horizons
  • A horizon - topmost layer of soil, often referred to as topsoil. It contains the most humus.
  • B horizon -has less humus. Water carries material from the A to the B horizon, in a process called leaching. “Zone of accumulation”
  • C horizon -lies below the B horizon and directly above the parent rock. It contains the largest rock fragments and usually no organic matter.
what it takes for soil to form

Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

What it takes for soil to form:
  • Parent rock - determines soil type
  • Climate-faster in warm, wet rather cold & dry.
  • Topography- (slope of the land) faster on flatlands
  • Plants and animals- add organic material by breaking down remains
  • Time- longer it has, the better the soil
soil properties are used to classify different soils

Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

Soil properties are used to classify different soils
  • Soil texture
  • Color
  • Pore space
  • Fertility
  • Chemistry (pH-acid/base)
ph scale measure of how acidic or basic a substance is
pH scale -measure of how acidic or basic a substance is.

Acids and bases are on opposite ends of a measuring tool, the pH scale. At the center of the scale is the neutral zone. This scale receives extensive use in testing soil for farmers, gardeners and environmentalists.

http://www.downsizingamerica.com/images/ph_scale.gif