HEPATITIS. Dr. Adil Khazindar Consultant Medicine & Infectious Diseases KAAUH. Types of Viral Hepatitis. HepatitisA Is an acute liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), lasting from a few weeks to several months. It does not lead to chronic infection.
Dr. Adil Khazindar
Consultant Medicine & Infectious Diseases
Is an acute liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), lasting from a few weeks to several months. It does not lead to chronic infection.
Transmission: Ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts, from close person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or drinks.
Vaccination: Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all children starting at age 1 year, travelers to certain countries, and others at risk
Is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ranges in severity from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks (acute), to a serious long-term (chronic) illness that can lead to liver disease or liver cancer.
Transmission: Contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids from having sex with an infected person, sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs, or from an infected mother to her newborn.
Vaccination: Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all infants, older children and adolescents who were not vaccinated previously, and adults at risk for HBV infection.
is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection sometimes results in an acute illness, but most often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
Transmission: Contact with the blood of an infected person, primarily through sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs.
Vaccination: There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV) and relies on HBV to replicate.
Transmission: Contact with infectious blood, similar to how HBV is spread.
Vaccination: There is no vaccine for hepatitis D.
Is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) that usually results in an acute infection. It does not lead to a chronic infection. While rare in the United States, hepatitis E is common in many parts of the world.
Transmission: Ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts; outbreaks are usually associated with contaminated water supply in countries with poor sanitation.
Vaccination: There is currently no FDA-approved vaccine for hepatitis E.
There were 30,000 cases of Hepatitis A reported to the CDC in the U.S. in 1997.
The agency estimates that there were as many as 270,000 cases each year from 1980 through 2000.
Some persons, particularly young children, are asymptomatic. When symptoms are present, they usually occur abruptly and can include the following:
When symptoms occur, how long do they usually last?
Symptoms usually last less than 2 months, although 10%–15% of symptomatic persons have prolonged or relapsing disease for up to 6 months.
No. Hepatitis A does not become chronic.
No. IgG antibodies to HAV, which appear early in the course of infection, provide lifelong protection against the disease.
A recent review by an expert panel, which evaluated the projected duration of immunity from vaccination, concluded that protective levels of antibody to HAV could be present for at least 25 years in adults and at least 14–20 years in children.
Yes. Hepatitis B, diphtheria, poliovirus (oral and inactivated), tetanus, oral typhoid, cholera, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, and yellow fever vaccines and immune globulin can be given at the same time that hepatitis A vaccine is given, but at a different injection site.
The safety of hepatitis A vaccination during pregnancy has not been determined; however, because the vaccine is produced from inactivated HAV, the theoretical risk to the developing fetus is expected to be low. The risk associated with vaccination, however, should be weighed against the risk for hepatitis A in women who might be at high risk for exposure to HAV.
Yes. Because hepatitis A vaccine is inactivated, no special precautions need to be taken when vaccinating immunocompromised persons.
Acute infection with hepatitis B virus
Is associated with acute viral hepatitis – an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice.
Chronic infection with Hepatitis B virus
May be either asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years.
Studies show the risk of sexual transmission in heterosexual, monogamous relationships is extremely rare or even null.
The CDC does not recommend the use of condoms between long-term monogamous discordant couples (where one partner is positive and the other is negative). However, because of the high prevalence of hepatitis C, this small risk may translate into a non-trivial number of cases transmitted by sexual routes. Vaginal penetrative sex is believed to have a lower risk of transmission than sexual practices that involve higher levels of trauma to anogenital mucosa
Tattooing dyes, ink pots, stylets and piercing implements can transmit HCV-infected blood from one person to another if proper sterilization techniques are not followed. Tattoos or piercings performed before the mid 1980s, "underground," or non-professionally are of particular concern since sterile techniques in such settings may have been or be insufficient to prevent disease. Despite these risks, it is rare for tattoos to be directly associated with HCV infection and the U.S.
Personal care items such as razors, toothbrushes, cuticle scissors, and other manicuring or pedicuring equipment can easily be contaminated with blood. Sharing such items can potentially lead to exposure to HCV. Appropriate caution should be taken regarding any medical condition which results in bleeding such as canker sores, cold sores, and immediately after flossing.
The following guidelines will prevent infection with the hepatitis C virus, which is spread by blood: