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  1. Hepatitis RM SBI3U Mr. Watts

  2. Definition HEPATITIS- inflammation of the liver - Hepatitis is a viral infection in the liver that causes the liver to swell and become inflamed. -Many different forms of the hepatitis virus (A,B,C,D,E) which vary in severity

  3. History - 1947 Mark McCallum released the first evidence of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis in his research. - 1967 Dr. Blumberg discovered the Australian antigen which lead to the discovery of hepatitis B, in 1969 Blumberg assisted in the development of the blood test used to detect hepatitis B as well as the vaccine. - Hepatitis C was discovered in 1989 - Hepatitis D was discovered in 1977 - Hepatitis E was discovered sometime between 1971-1976

  4. Causes Hepatitis A: -found in feces -both hepatitis A & E are spread through fecal-oral contamination or close contact (unprotected sex) • Hepatitis B: • - found in blood and certain body fluids • spread when blood or fluid from infected person enters body of person not immune • spread by unprotected sex, sharing needles, and through infected mother to child.

  5. Hepatitis C: • found in blood and certain body fluids • Spread when HCV infected blood/fluid enters another person • Spread through sharing needles or infected mother to child but rarely is spread through unprotected sex. • Hepatitis D: • person must also be infected with hepatitis B • Spread through sharing needles and/or exposure to blood/blood products.

  6. Symptoms • Jaundice • Clay coloured stools • Abdominal Pain • Dark coloured urine • Loss of apetite • Other flu like symptoms

  7. Effects • Hepatitis A: • Recovery from HAV = lifetime immunity • 15-50 days for symptoms to develop • Kills 2% of those over 50 • Patient is contagious until jaundice appears • Can cause liver failure • Hepatitis B: • - babies born to mothers with HBV have higher chance of developing chronic HBV later in life which can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. • Chronic HBV can attack the liver for years without detection • 90% of healthy adults will recovery and develop antibody against it.

  8. Hepatitis C: • 70-80% of people progress to chronic infection • 1-5% of infected people die as a result of chronic liver diseases, diseases from liver damage, cancer of liver • Hepatitis D: • Infects those carrying hepatitis B • Up to 20% of hepatitis D infections are rapidly fatal • Doesn’t have necessary viral equipment to replicate itself, depends on HBV for replication • Hepatitis E: • - severity increases with age • Most found in developing countries • Death rate in pregnant women 15-20% • not long lasting

  9. Diagnosis • All forms of hepatitis can be detected and diagnosed through a blood test. • Two tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis of hepatitis C and a measure of liver enzymes through a blood test and sometimes a biopsy.

  10. Treatment • Hepatitis A&B: • -Hepatitis A is prevented by good sanitation • Both hepatitis A and B are treated with rest and relaxation and no alcohol for several months • people with chronic hep. B should get vaccinated for hep. A • Hepatitis C: • can be waited out depending on liver damage seen through biopsy • Doctors will monitor condition, antiviral medication exist to help fight hep C (peginterferonaifa, ribavirin) Hepatitis D: - Liver transplant is effective treatment for severe chronic hepatitis D. Hepatitis E: - get enough calories, drink enough fluids, and avoid harmful liver meds.

  11. Future Outlook • 7 drugs approved in U.S. For chronic hepatitis B • Medical people working on more effective and less toxic antivirals • 2 new drugs, telaprevirand boceprevir have been found and are providing hope for more cures to hepatitis C.

  12. Fun Time!! What is the difference between acute and chronic hepatitis? Acute lasts less than 6 months whereas chronic lasts longer than 6 months Who was the doctor who won the Nobel Prize for Medicine through his work with hepatitis B? Dr. Blumberg To be diagnosed with hepatitis D you must have also been diagnosed with? Hepatitis B The word hepatitis means? Inflammation of the liver. Name 3 symptoms of hepatitis Jaundice, clay coloured stool, abdominal pain, dark coloured urine, loss of appetite, flu like symptoms.

  13. Fun Time Final Round What were Mark McCallum’s original names for hepatitis A&B? Infectious and serum hepatitis What 2 symptoms are only associated with chronic hepatitis? Jaundice and abdominal pain. In severe cases of hepatitis D what is the most effective treatment? Liver transplant

  14. Works Cited Youngson, R.M. 2005, Encyclopedia of Family Health Third Edition, Tarrytown, NY, Marshall Cavendish Corporation Pubmed Health, Hepatitis, 11,11,11, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002139/ Health Canada, Hepatitis, 11,11,11, www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/dc-ma/hep-eng.php Hepatitis B Foundation, Hepatitis B Reference Summary, 11, 11, 11, http://www.hepb.org/hepatitisbcd/modules/infectd/id450101/id459101g.html Public Health Agency of Canada, Hepatitis E Fact Sheet, 11, 11, 11, www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hcai-iamss/bbp-pts/hepatitis/hep_e-eng.php Public Health Agency of Canada, Hepatitis G Fact Sheet, 11, 11, 11, http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hcai-iamss/bbp-pts/hepatitis/hep_g-eng.php Public Health Agency of Canada, Hepatitis C Fact Sheet, 11, 11, 11, http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hcai-iamss/bbp-pts/hepatitis/hep_c-eng.php Washington State Department of Health, Delta Hepatitis (hepatitis D), 11, 11, 11, www.doh.wa.gov/EHSPHL/factsheet/hepd.htm Hepatitis B Foundation, Meet Dr. Blumberg, 7, 12, 11 http://www.hepb.org/about/blumberg.htm

  15. Picture Citations http://kirstyne.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/infection.gif http://www.beltina.org/pics/hepatitis_prevention.jpg http://www.mysafetysign.com/img/lg/S/Unsafe-Drinking-Water-Notice-Sign-S-2828.gif http://www.asianweek.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Dr.Blumberg.jpg http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/homersimpson-css.gif http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/hepbuta002.jpg