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Chapter 13 Notes. Human Geography of Europe. Section 1. Mediterranean Europe “All roads lead to Rome” What does this saying mean? Rome built a large network of roads to help communication and troop movement.

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chapter 13 notes

Chapter 13 Notes

Human Geography of Europe

section 1
Section 1
  • Mediterranean Europe “All roads lead to Rome”
  • What does this saying mean?
    • Rome built a large network of roads to help communication and troop movement.
  • What two geographic advantages helped the Mediterranean become the region where European civilization was born?
  • 1.Mild Climate
  • 2.Mediterranean Sea encouraged trade
section 11
Section 1
  • Greece is the birthplace of
    • Democracy
  • What geographic feature caused the Greek city states to be isolated from each other?
    •  The mountains
  • Define city state:
    • A political unit made up of city and surrounding areas.
  • Which city state developed the first democracy?
    • Athens
section 12
Section 1
  • As Greece lost power, a state to the west, ROME, was rising.
  • What type of government existed in Rome?
    • A Republic
  • Define this type of government:
    • Citizens elect Representatives
  • How did the Roman Empire grow?
    • Through Conquering of territories
  • Why did the government eventually split? What were these two parts called?
    • It was too big Divided into Eastern and Western Halves
section 13
Section 1
  • How many peninsulas exist in the Mediterranean?
    • 3
  • The Balkan Peninsula remained part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) for about 1000 years.
  • Italian City States: the invaders who overran Italy had no tradition of strong central government.
section 14
Section 1
  • Define Crusades:
    • War to take Palestine from the Muslims
  • Define Renaissance:
    • Renewed interest in learning and the arts
  • What disease killed millions of people in Europe in 1347?
    • Bubonic Plague
  • Spain’s Empire: In the 700s Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal), and controlled parts for more than 700 years.
  • What year did the Catholic rulers retake all of Spain from the Muslims?
    • 1492
  • What were their names?
    • Ferdinand and Isabella
section 15
Section 1


Mediterranean Europe’s history shaped its culture by determining where languages are spoken and where Religions are practiced today.

section 16
Section 1
  • Even though Greece was conquered by Rome, it still retained its own language. However, Portugese, Spanish, and Italian are all romance languages that evolved from Latin, the language of Rome.
  • The two halves of the Roman Empire also developed different forms of Christianity.
  • What is the major religion in Greece today?
    • Eastern Orthodox
  • What about in Italy, Spain, and Portugal?
    • Roman Catholic
section 17
Section 1
  • Greece and Italy have ancient Ruins, such as the Parthenon.
  • Spain has Roman aqueducts and Muslim Mosques.
  • Define aqueduct:
    • Structures that carried water for long distances
  • The region also has an artistic legacy which includes Classical Statues, Renaissance painting and sculpture, and Modern art.
section 18
Section 1
  • Usually Mediterranean regions are less industrial. Historically, on what two things was the region’s economy based upon?
    • Fishing and Agriculture
  • What changed in the late 20th century? Tell me what increased.
    • Manufacturing Increased
  • What is the major industry in Spain?
    • Automobiles
section 19
Section 1
  • In Portugal?
    • Making Textiles
  • In Italy?
    • Clothing and Shoes
  • What organization did several countries join in the 1980s? How did this aid economic growth?
    • European Union
section 110
Section 1
  • What economic challenges does Italy face and why?
    • North is closer to other industrial countries
    • South has poorer transportation
  • What is a problem facing the ENTIRE Mediterranean region?
    • Poor in energy resources and relies heavily on imported petroleum.

A History of Cultural Divisions

  • What are the two dominant countries in Western Europe?
    • France and Germany
  • How did these two countries build productive economies? 4 reasons.
    • Two largest countries, access to resources, ports, and trade routes

French culture is strong in France and Monaco. German culture is strong in Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg have their own cultures, but also have German and French influences.



  • One cultural division, language dates from ancient times. Why?
    • Rome never fully conquered the Germanic tribes so German continued to be spoken
  • Which Germanic king conquered most of Western Europe in the late 700s?
    • Charlemagne


  • What religious movement created new differences?
    • The Reformation
  • What country is predominantly Catholic today?
    • France

Define Middle Ages:

    • Period between fall of Rome and the Renaissance
  • Nationalism: After the fall of Rome, what type of government developed in Europe?
    • Feudalism: system in which powerful lords owned most of the land

Define Nationalism: People should be loyal to their nation, people whom they share land, culture, and history with.

  • How did Nationalism contribute to the rise of modern nation-states?
    • It causes groups to want their own country

The nation-states of Europe became strong rivals. Wars repeatedly broke out between France and Austria, or France and Germany from the 1600s to 1945.

Western Europe experienced Industrial growth in the 1800s. This led them to set up colonies in other nations, and increased rivalries.



  • What helped cause World War I?
    • Nationalistic Rivalry and competittion for colonies among European nations
  • What result of WWI helped cause World War II?
    • Harsh terms imposed on Germany and their resentment for them.

What happened to Germany following WWII? When did Germany finally reunite?

    • Germany split into two nations east and west. It finally reunited in 1990


  • Why does the economy of Western Europe remain strong?
    • It includes agriculture, manufacturing, plus high-tech and service industries

Dairy farming and livestock provide most of the agricultural income in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.

  • What do these countries produce and export?
    • Dairy products

France is the largest producer of agricultural products in Western Europe. Its major crops include wheat, grapes, and vegetables

  • Why was Western Europe a leader in developing industry?
    • it was rich in coal and iron ore

What are the top 3 manufacturing nations?

    • France, Germany, and the Netherlands
  • Electronics is a major part of the Netherlands. Who else produces electronics?
    • Germany

What is the name of France’s passenger train?

    • TGV( train a grandevitesse) high speed train
  • What type of energy does France rely on for 75% of its electricity?
    • Nuclear Energy
  • In which service industry does Switzerland specialize?
    • Banking


Tourism is a major part of the French, Swiss, and Austrian economies.

Western Europe exports Luxury goods.



  • Music: List two great composers and the countries they are from.
    • Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig von Beethoven
  • Painting: List three great painters and the countries they are from.
    • Rembrandt, Claude Monet, and Paul Gauguin


Advantages: excellent public transportation, many cultural attractions, socializing, more paid vacation time.