Notes: Chapter 13: RNA & Protein Synthesis. 2 steps: Transcription (DNA is made into mRNA in the nucleus) Translation (mRNA is made into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER). RNA Structure. Similar to DNA, but with some important differences:
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1. ribosome attaches to mRNA
2. tRNA with amino acid matches mRNA codon(area on tRNA that matches called an anticodon). This process is called initiation. 2 tRNAs can fit at one time.
3. ribosome moves down and matches next codon.
4. Amino acids form peptide bond and protein continues to grow, 1 amino acid at a time. This process is called elongation.
5. ribosome reaches stop codon, mRNA, tRNAs, protein and ribosome released. This process is called termination.
The product is called a polypeptide. Modified in ER or Golgi to make a protein.