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Development Over the Life Span. Birth ( before actually) to Death. chapter 3. Overview. Conception to year one Cognitive development Learning to be good Gender development Adolescence Adulthood The wellsprings of resilience. Objectives.

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development over the life span

Development Over the Life Span

Birth ( before actually) to Death


chapter 3

  • Conception to year one
  • Cognitive development
  • Learning to be good
  • Gender development
  • Adolescence
  • Adulthood
  • The wellsprings of resilience
  • Describe developmental psychologists and socialization
  • List the 3 stages of prenatal development
  • Explain motor reflexes in newborns and support with an example
  • Describe Types of attachment and Harlow’sMonkey’s and Ainsworth’s babies
at the beginning
At the Beginning….
  • Developmental psychologists- Study universal aspects of life span development as well as cultural and individual variations
  • Natural life stages
  • Physicalogical, cognitive changes
  • Socialization- children learn attitudes and behaviors expected from them in society
prenatal development

chapter 3

Prenatal development

30 Hours


4 months

6 weeks

prenatal development 3 stages
Prenatal development= 3 stages
  • Germinal – sperm meets female ovum or egg= fertilization
  • Inside single cell organism zygote
  • 10-14 days Zygote begins to split, cluster of cells, attaches to uterus wall
  • Outer portion will be umbilical chord and placenta
  • Nutrients and waste
stage 2
Stage 2
  • Implantation is complete
  • Embryonic stage- weeks 2 through 8
  • 1.5 inches long
  • Hormone testosterone secreted; as a result sex of baby
stage 3
Stage 3
  • 8 weeks on fetal stage
  • Now called a fetus
  • Develops organs and systems of the body
  • Neural development ( brain neurons) substantial)
  • However some toxins ( tetragons) can seep through
agents that cross the placenta

chapter 3

Agents that cross the placenta

German measles

X-rays and other radiation

Sexually transmitted diseases

Cigarette smoking

Alcohol and other drugs

the infants world
The Infants World
  • Can’t survive on own; but have motor reflexes
  • Automatic behaviors that are necessary for survival
  • 7 categories of reflexes in the newborn baby
physical abilities

chapter 3

Physical abilities

Newborn reflexes




Moro (“startle”)




perceptual abilities

chapter 3

Perceptual abilities

Visual abilities

Quickly develops beyond initial range of eight inches

Can distinguish contrasts, shadows, and edges

Other senses




culture and maturation

chapter 3

Culture and maturation

Many aspects of development depend on customs

Baby’s ability to sleep alone

Recommendation to have babies sleep on their back has caused many babies to skip crawling.


chapter 3


A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker

Contact comfort

In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact

The basis of the infant’s first attachment

Tested using strange situation

A parent-infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child’s attachment

margret and harry harlow
Margret and Harry Harlow
  • Contact comfort with rhesus monkeys
  • Artificial mothers
  • 1st has face, but just wire outside feeding tube
  • 2nd has face, but terry cloth around wire feeding tube.
  • Scientist used to believe attached to Mom because she feeds US! NOT TRUE
  • Ran to it when startled or scared
mary ainsworth 1973 strange situation
Mary Ainsworth (1973)- Strange situation
  • Nature of attachment with mothers and babies
  • Mom brings baby into unfamiliar room with toys
  • After a while stranger comes in and attempts to play with child
  • Mother leaves child with stranger
  • She then returns plays with child, stranger leaves
  • Leave baby by self for three minutes
  • 4 categories of attachment according to M.A.
types of attachment

chapter 3

Types of attachment


A parent-infant relationship in which the baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion.


A parent-infant relationship in which the baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or apathy to reunion.

2 more types of attachment
2 more types of attachment
  • Avoidant- not caring if mother leaves the room, make little effort to seek contact upon her return, treating stranger about same as mom
  • Anxious/ ambivalent- resisting contact when mom returns but protesting loudly if she leaves= cry to be picked up then demand to be put down
what causes insecure attachment

chapter 3

What causes insecure attachment?

Abandonment and deprivation in the first two years of life

Parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic

Child’s genetically influenced temperament

Stressful circumstances in the family

  • Cognitive development
  • Stages of development
  • Attachment: Harlow’s monkeys; Ainsworth’s babies