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The United Nations

The United Nations

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The United Nations

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  1. The United Nations Jamie Roder AnjanaVenugopal

  2. An international organization made up of most countries in the world, committed to promoting international cooperation, peace, security and economic and environmental development. Important Documents: The U.N. Charter The universal Declaration of Human Rights The U.N. Millennium development goals What is the Organization?

  3. Began in 1945, continuing today: 68 years old • Predecessor was the League of Nations • They are based on the same ideals, have similar purposes • The U.N. was created after the League disbanded for failing to prevent WWII • Originally only included 51 states, has expanded to 193 Age of Organization

  4. “Maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.” (UN Homepage) • Peacekeeping: Keeping peace and preventing disputes from escalating • Peace-Building: Building peaceful international relationships • Conflict Resolution: Resolving conflicts between or within countries • Humanitarian Assistance: Promoting human rights/Giving humanitarian aid Purpose

  5. Organizations Representing U.N. Purpose • International Court of Justice • Resolves disputes between states • Economic and Social Council • Deals with economic and social issues • General Assembly • Represents the interests of member states • Serves as a forum for member states to discuss and decided on international issues

  6. Who is Involved? Membership Leadership • General Assembly • 193 member states (out of 196 countries) • One representative for each state • President: S.E.M. VukJeremić of Serbia • Some exceptions: • Palestine (observer state) • The Vatican • Western Sahara • Secretary General: Ban Ki-moon • “Chief Administrative Officer” • 5-year terms • Symbolizes the U.N. and its values • Acts as a spokesperson for member states • Security Council • 5 permanent members: U.S., U.K., Russia, China, France • 10 non-permanent members (2 year terms) • President rotates each month between the 15 member states

  7. Pros and Cons of Membership Advantages Disadvantages • Provides a place to discuss and resolve international issues • Gives small states a voice • Provides protection and support in times of emergency • Provides a state with international recognition, leading to respect • Members can help develop international law, and must adhere to it • Environment: Kyoto Protocol • Human Rights • States must pay a fee to be a member • Burden to poorer countries • Richer states do not necessarily reap a benefit proportional to their investment • The Security Council is not representative of most member nations or even current world powers • Does not have much power to act in times of emergency • Ex: Rwandan Genocide

  8. International Impact Mexico Nigeria Russia China Iran The United Kingdom

  9. Mexico • Mexico pleads (to General Council) that other countries do more to help stop the drug trade • U.N. contributes to the protection of human rights • Committee on Migrant Workers • Committee against torture • Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women • Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

  10. Nigeria • Environmental Protection: Oil Pollution Crisis • U.N. Environment Program conducts study to determine the levels of oil pollution in Ogoniland and surrounding areas. • Serves as a supervising presence to make sure that this issue is not ignored in Nigeria • Tests show that drinking water near oil plants contains unsage carcinogen levels determined by WHO • Capacity for Governance Program • Programs to increase government accountability • Economic Governance Program • Prioritizing resources for economic development involving fiscal policy and aid • Sustainability and Risk Management Program • Protection of the country’s resources • Private Sector Development Program • Growing non-oil resource base and promoting markets

  11. Russia • Member of the Security Council • Poverty Reduction • Focus on investing in right areas and development of private industry • Crisis Prevention and Recovery • Promotes development, esp. North Ossetia • Energy and Environment • Promotes efficient use of energy resources • HIV/AIDS • Increasing treatment availability/options

  12. China • Member of the Security Council • Poverty Reduction • Promotes equal rights and fair pay for migrant workers • Governance • Energy, Environment, Climate Change • Joint Green Development Plan; UNDP and Ministry of Science and Technology are introducing “green” farming techniques that also produce profit to rural farmers • Cooperation and Global Issues in the Global South • International Poverty Reduction Center in China uses the U.N. to promote relations between itself and other nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

  13. Iran • Current large involvement in Iran’s nuclear issue • U.N. imposed economic sanctions: arms embargo, freeze on Iranian assets • Tension over human rights issues • Ex: U.N. urges Iran to release opposition activists from prison • U.N. focus on development in: • Environment and Energy • Gender • Poverty Reduction • Crisis Protection and Recovery

  14. The United Kingdom Member of the Security Council The U.N. rarely intervenes in the U.K. since it is stable and adheres to U.N. objectives The U.N. can obligate the U.K. to contribute forces for U.N. missions

  15. Works Cited “About ECOSOC.” United Nations Economic and Social Council. United Nations. Web. <http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/about/> “At U.N., Mexico Urges Countries to Increase Measures to Combat Illegal Drug Trade.” UN News Centre. United Nations. Web. 26 September 2012. <http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43053&Cr=general+debate&Cr1> “Cleaning Up Nigeria Oil Pollution Could Take Years, Cost Millions – UN.” UN News Centre. United Nations. Web. 4 August 2011. <http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39232&Cr=pollutio..#.UUuH8Bc3sbA> “Crisis Prevention and Recovery.” UNDP: Russian Federation. Web. <http://www.undp.ru/index.php?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=programs3> “History of the United Nations.” U.N. History Home. United Nations. Web. <http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/index.shtml> “Iran.” UNDP: Iran. Web. <http://www.undp.org.ir/> “Main Bodies.” Main Bodies. United Nations. Web. <http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/>

  16. Works Cited “Mexico.” United Nations Human Rights. Web. 2013. <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/LACRegion/Pages/MXIndex.aspx> “Nigeria.” UNDP: Nigeria. Web. <http://www.ng.undp.org/> “Quick Facts and Success Stories.” Millennium Development Goals: We Can End Poverty 2015. United Nations. Web. <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/> “The Role of the Secretary General.” Secretary-General: Ban Ki-moon. United Nations. Web. 2012. <http://www.un.org/sg/sg_role.shtml> “Russian Federation.” UNDP: Russian Federation. Web. <http://www.undp.ru/index.php?iso=RU&lid=1> “UN Human Rights Experts Urge Iran to Release Detained Opposition Activists.” UN News Centre. United Nations. Web. 11 February 2013. <http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=44117> “Welcome to UNDP China.” UNDP: China. Web. 2011. <http://www.undp.org.cn/>