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The United Nations

The United Nations

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The United Nations

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  1. The United Nations

  2. UN Charter • UN established in 1945, San Francisco Meeting • 51 member countries originally • 191 member countries today • Inter-government organization • UN charter • Principle of sovereignty • Principle of non-intervention • Collective security • National self determination, but secondary to sovereignty

  3. International Institutions(AKA International Regimes) • International law • UN Security Council Resolution, Treaties • International organizations/agencies • UN, World Bank, World Trade Organization • Soft law/rules • UN General Assembly resolutions • International norms, principles, practices • Free commerce, sovereignty, accountability, anti-apartheid, human rights, women’s rights

  4. UN Core Institutions • General Assembly • One country, one vote, two-thirds majority • Resolutions • Budget • Security Council • 5 permanent members • 10 rotating members • Decision: 9 out of 15 • UN Secretariat • Secretary General

  5. Specialized Programs • United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) • Unite Nations Development Program (UNDP) • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

  6. Specialized Agencies • World Health Organization (WHO) • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) • World Bank Group • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • Etc., etc…

  7. UN and Conflict Prevention • Cold War • SC blocked by bi-polar interests • Collective Security action • Gulf war 1991 • US hegemony and intervention without authorization • Kosovo 1999 • Iraq 2003

  8. UN Reform • Budget • US went from 30% to 25%, Japan seeks to reduce • Human Rights Commission • Membership by countries that violate HR • Security Council