The Aeneid, Book Two The plot Characters Themes Pathos and tragedy Symbols and imagery Similes Prophecy
Through understanding the themes, language features and symbols we can comprehensively evaluate and discuss Book Two. Learning Objective
Who was Laocoon? • He was the Trojan priest. • What is the main idea in Book Two? • The defeat of the Trojans. • Whose idea was it to erect the giant horse, according to Sinon? • Calchas’ idea (high priest of the Greeks) • Who appears to Aeneas in a dream? • Hector. • Who was Creusa and what happened to her? • She was Aeneas’ wife. She was killed when the Trojans were escaping. • Who are the Danaans? • They are the Greeks (sub-tribe). Quiz NEIGH
“All lips were hushed, all eyes attentive fixed: Then Prince Aeneas from his lofty couch Addressed him thus to speak” (lines 1-2) “Build up a horse of mountain bulk, the ribs of pine-planks interwoven” (line 15) “Hither they sail, and on the barren shore Lie hid. We deemed them far upon their way” (lines 24-25) “Alack! So mad, my masters! Do ye think the foe departed?... Even gift in hand I fear the Danai still.” (lines 44-49) “If Fortune shaped Sinon for misery, shall her spite, beside, shape him to fraud and falsehood.” (line 78) PLOT - Find the right quote for each section.
A) Aeneas passes Helen. He thinks of striking her down then for causing the war. Venus appears and asks him why he is so bitter. She shows him that the gods were working against Troy emphasizing that they had no hope. She sped him along to his father, Anchises. Anchises refuses to leave. • D) Priam put on his armour.His wife and daughters plead with him.At that moment Pyrrhus rushed in and killed Polites on the altar. Priam flung his spear towards the invader. Pyrrhus laughed as the old man missed and then he killed him. C) Ascanius' face litesup with a divine light as if it were on fire and Anchises asked Jupiter to confirm the omen. They watched a shooting star streak through the sky and Anchises decided that he should leave. Aeneas slung his father over his shoulders and led his child by the hand. B) Coroebus rushed off to death when they found out that Cassandra was raped. Plot - arrange these points in the correct order.
And finally … Aeneas searches the city for Creusa. • What does she say to Aeneas? Plot.
Read pages 17-21 of the Findlay text. • In pairs discuss the questions on pages 17-18 as a recap. • Do activities 1 and 3 on page 20. ACTIVITY
When did Hitler become Chancellor of Germany? • 1933 QUIRKY QUESTION
AENEAS: demonstrates furor instead of fleeing Troy. He decides to fight and possibly die as a hero. • Venus reminds him of his duty (to protect his family and start a new race). HE BEGINS SHOWING PIETAS. CHARACTERS
Laocoon: Trojan ____ of _______. • Sinon: Greek soldier captured by the ______. • Hector: son of ___ ____ of Troy, appears to ____ in his sleep. • Panthus: priest of ____. • Coroebus: ally of King ____. • Cassandra: _______ of King Priam. • Androgeos: ____ warrior. • Pyrrhus: Greek warrior, son of _____. • Priam: aged king of ___. • Hecuba: Priam’s ___. priest Neptune Trojans King Priam Aeneas Apollo Priam daughter Greek Achilles Troy wife New characters: fill in the blanks
The gods are responsible for the start of the war (Judgement of Paris). They are also responsible for the outcome of the war: the downfall of Troy. • Gods control the events in Book II. Role of the gods in Book II
Cruelty of the gods. • Power and control of the gods. Can not avoid will of the gods. • Gods assist with fate. • Intervention of the gods in the affairs of the mortals – no concern for welfare of the mortals. • Human dependence on the gods. • Gods = enemies of Troy. GOD GODGOD GODS Role of the gods cont.
Create a mind map which demonstrates the below: • How the gods act in Bk II • How the mortals put their trust in the gods • How the gods impose on Aeneas’ personal life • How they meddle in the process of things. Activity on the gods
Read page 35 Findlay. Create a flow chart which summarises the Aeneas’ divine mission. Major theme: Aeneas’ divine mission
The story • Roman heritage • Pain and suffering of war • The death of Priam • Sympathetic view. Portrays the Trojans as heroes. Another theme is war and the horrors surrounding it. Write a paragraph which explains how Book II portrays this. You may use the below points. Major theme: War/ the Trojan War
Pathos (sorrow). • The fall of Troy is narrated by Aeneas, a victim of war, because of this the reader is made to sympathise with him and his plight. • Virgil is sympathetic towards the Trojans. • Find a direct quote which supports this idea. PATHOS AND TRAGEDY
Concentration on a single purpose: Aeneas’ destiny. • Continuity of themes, motifs (prophecies and predictions) and characters. • Integration of imagery: snakes, ghost of Hector. PATHOS AND TRAGEDY
Tragic fear and pity, such as the destruction of Troy is not a deserved punishment. • The tragic hero – Aeneas. • Emphasis on the idea that neither righteousness nor religion are any protection to the Trojans. PATHOS AND TRAGEDY
Wooden Horse: the Trojan horse is one of the main symbols of Book II because it represents the infiltration of the Greeks. Language features
The other major symbol are snakes: represents the invasion of the Greeks and danger. • A recurring image in the book : • the two sea-snakes kill Laocoon; • Androgeos is like a man who stepped on a snake; • Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) is compared to a snake who's just sloughed its skin. Language features
OTHER SYMBOLS • Ghost of Hector: reveals to Aeneas the beginning of his divine mission. • Flames: symbolises that the Trojans must leave. What other images does Zeus create? • Creusa as a melting dream. • War as a flood representing violence. Language features
“Troy’s dyinganguish” (personification) • “Now, too, dewy night adown the sky falls headlong, and the stars sinking invite sleep” (metaphor) • “All lips were hushed” (metaphor) • “When from the upturned eyes shot quivering flames” (metaphor). • Describe the effects of the above language features “the shepherd [Aneas]” Discuss how this is an example of multiple correspondence.
There are parts of prophecies contained in the speeches of Hector and Creusa as they hint that Aeneas must go on a journey with the refugees on Troy and found a city. PROPHECY