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Animal Signals and Communication. Signal- a behavior that causes a change in another animal’s behavior Communication- transmission, reception and response to signals Efficient in energy costs Nocturnal: olfactory and auditory Diurnal: visual and auditory signals (birds, humans).

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animal signals and communication
Animal Signals and Communication
  • Signal- a behavior that causes a change in another animal’s behavior
  • Communication- transmission, reception and response to signals
  • Efficient in energy costs
  • Nocturnal: olfactory and auditory
  • Diurnal: visual and auditory signals (birds, humans)
chemical communication
Chemical Communication
  • Pheromones: chemical substances that animals use to communicate
  • Often relate to reproductive behavior
  • Important in context
  • Also, used in non-reproductive behavior
  • Acts as an alarm substance
  • Effective at low concentrations
audit ory communication
Auditory Communication
  • Generally under direct genetic control
  • Male Drosophila raised in isolation produce characteristic song for their species with little variation
  • Chrysoperla carnea- courtship song divides into 15 species
  • Hybrids sing song that contains elements of both parental species’ songs
genetic influences on mating and parental behavior
Genetic Influences on Mating and Parental Behavior
  • Many under strong genetic control
  • Prairie voles: monogamous, male help care for young
  • Mated males are aggressive while unmated are non-aggressive
  • Researches thought arginine-vasopressin (neurotransmitter released during mating) might mediate these behaviors
  • AVP binds with V1areceptors
  • These receptors were put in mice and they showed similar mating behaviors
  • Single gene may mediate a considerable amount of mating behavior
dietary influence on mate choice behavior
Dietary Influence on Mate Choice Behavior
  • Drosophila mojavensis lay eggs on rotting cactus tissues
  • Baja California, Mexico: agria cactus
  • Sonora, Mexico and Arizona: organ pipe cactus
  • Food eaten by larvae strongly influences later mate selection by females
  • Hydrocarbons in exoskeletons
social environment and aggressive behavior
Social Environment and Aggressive Behavior
  • Cross-fostering California mice (highly aggressive, monogamous, parental care) and white-footed mice (not monogamous, little parental care)
  • California mice raised by white-footed mice showed less care for young
  • Also, less aggressive towards intruders
  • White-footed mice raised by California were more aggressive
  • These results suggest that experience during development can lead to changes in behaviors which can be passed on
learning
Learning
  • Learning- the modification of behavior based on specific experiences
  • Habituation- a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
  • Allows for nervous system to focus on helpful stimuli
  • Spatial learning- the modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment
  • Wasp pinecone experiment