Shang Dynasty • First verifiable dynasty • harsh, brutal rule • demanded human sacrifice! • Created several key ideas that has lasted in China • ancestor worship idea that we pray to our ancestors to get their help Great bronze workers!!! - Ruled China from about 1700 BCE to 1027 BCE
Shang & Zhou Dynasties • Shang was verified because of • Oracle Bones • Tortoise shells or cattle bones • Shang kings were listed on them with their deeds • Shang falls to Zhou dynasty due to corruption & ineptitude • Zhou creates 2 long lasting ideas • Mandate of Heaven • idea that kings rule because the gods favor them
Dynastic Cycle • New dynasty claims the Mandate of Heaven • New Dynasty: restores peace, appoints new officials, redistributes land to peasants, builds infrastructure • After several generations, new dynasty becomes an aging dynasty Aging dynasty: neglects gov’t duties, • ignores corrupt officials, loses control of provinces, impose heavy taxes, defenses crumble • Aging dynasty begin losing the Mandate of Heaven • Problems: floods, invasions, crime, revolts • Aging dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven • New dynasty claims the Mandate of Heaven
Era of Warring States • Zhou was time of disunity • many different states formed & fought each other for control • known as Era of Warring States • Period of great unrest • people began to look for solutions to political problems
Chinese Philosophies • Three main schools: • Confucianism – founded by Confucius • Daoism – founded by Lao-Tzu • Legalism – main proponent was Han Fei-Tzu Confucius ← Lao-Tzu Han Fei-Tzu
Confucianism • b. 551 BCE, d. 479 BCE • born into noble family (father was a warrior), but would grow up in poverty after father died • worked at various jobs as adult, until becoming a government minister • worked for many different kingdoms and explained his philosophy, but ideas never implemented • became a teacher and viewed his life as a failure • would become most influential person in history!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Confucianism - Five Social Relationships • looked back at earlier time – found ancient times were better because people respected their ELDERS!! • must return to those principles – Social Relationships • (a) father and son (loving / reverential) • (b) ruler and subject (benevolent / loyal) • (c) husband and wife (good / listening) • (d) elder brother and younger brother (gentle / respectful) • (e) older friend and younger friend (considerate / deferential)
Confucianism - Five Social Relationships • there is a superior and inferior person in each relationship • superior is role model • inferior must be obedient • understand your place • order comes from knowing and maintaining your role • did not care about individual rights or salvation - emphasized virtues - courtesy, selflessness, obedience, respect, diligence, communal obligation, working for a common good, social harmony, and empathy - filial piety respect for family & parents
Confucianism • conformity to rules are important • stresses group over the individual • return to these beliefs would bring order • meritocracy people rise in status through good work • Middle Way look for balance in life • Golden Rule do not treat others in ways you do not want to be treated • Civil Service
Hierarchy with superior & inferior people; People know their roles; can rise up in status with education People are good but can be ignorant Ruled by emperor who provides a good role model for the people Many rules with just and fair punishments Ignorance
Daoism (Taoism) • founded by Lao-Tzu (Laozi) • may have been mythical figure • legend holds he left village because no one was listening • stopped by village guard and he had him write down his beliefs becomes known as the Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) • believed society was chaotic because of the rules • NO RULES NO RULE BREAKERS!!!!
Daoism • man in his natural state was good • nature provides everything • artificial ideas – wealth, possession, laws, etc. – causes evil • leave men alone, order will follow • “Do by not doing.” wuwei • “Those who say, do not know; those who know, do not say.” • “The Dao that can be known is not Dao.The substance of the World is only a name for Dao.Dao is all that exists and may exist” Yin andyang
People do what comes naturally to them – since they are naturally good, people will not take advantage of others People are naturally good No Government; government is artificial and therefore evil No laws; laws are the cause of crime – no laws there can be no crime Artificial rules and regulations; creation of artificial concepts such as ownership
Legalism – School of Law • goal was to strengthen government & reinforce adherence to the law • all people are fundamentally flawed • all humans are selfish and evil • harsh laws & punishments required to keep them in order • create meritocracy • strong military needed to control people • all people must subordinate self to state
Legalism • Han Fei Tzu (Han Feizi) – wanted strong ruler obeyed by all • must not be kind harshness over benevolence • cannot “spoil” people or it threatens order • Qin dynasty • ruled by Shi Huang Di first emperor of China (221-207 BCE)
Few laws but with severe & harsh punishment; Laws are applied equally to all and always enforced equally with no consideration for degrees King at top with gov’t officials for enforcement; upward mobility; Rewards for good behavior and severe punishment for breaking laws Evil, selfish, lazy Strong king (or emperor) that everybody obeys People in natural state