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The Origins of the Cold War. How the world fell into another war that was unlike anything anyone had seen before. Churchill’s Back…the Prophet. Churchill sees Stalin as a threat during WWII Especially more so as Germany is falling FDR disagrees with him and sees Stalin as a friend and ally.

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the origins of the cold war

The Origins of the Cold War

How the world fell into another war that was unlike anything anyone had seen before

churchill s back the prophet
Churchill’s Back…the Prophet
  • Churchill sees Stalin as a threat during WWII
    • Especially more so as Germany is falling
  • FDR disagrees with him and sees Stalin as a friend and ally
changing of the guard
Changing of the Guard
  • FDR dies April 1945
  • Harry Truman takes over
    • Agrees with Churchill’s views on Stalin
post wwii us style
Post-WWII…US style
  • 400,000 dead but the US won
    • Mainland untouched by enemy fire
    • Economy doing well
soviet union post wwii
Soviet Union Post-WWII
  • 50 times the fatalities of the US
    • 25% of the Soviets are killed or wounded
  • Cities and Economy destroyed
underlying mistrust
Underlying Mistrust
  • USSR fears the West
    • After WWI – western aid to the Whites (1918-1921)
    • US Red Scare
  • During WWII
    • West was slow to open up 2nd front
    • Potsdam

US soldier at guard tower in Northern Russia. Aiding Tsar.

dealing with the losers
Dealing with the losers
  • Peace of Paris – 10 Feb 1947
    • Reparations…again
      • Italy, Finland, Hungary, Romanians all owe money and land to USSR
    • Decision to split up Germany is decided
      • USSR gets factories and moveable items
    • Austria is also divided but not forced to pay any reparations
germany s destiny
Germany’s Destiny
  • Russia want to punish Germany for the war – heavily
  • US, Britain, and France want to get Germany back on her feet as quickly as possible
  • Many ethnic Germans are kicked out of their current homeland during this time
    • Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland all kick them out
    • Germany gov’t doesn’t want to pay for them
soviet goals
Soviet Goals
  • Terrified of Germany
    • 30,000,000 dead Soviets in two world wars
  • Need Security
    • Satellite states
    • Comintern
  • USSR wants communist HEGEMONY – leadership or dominance, esp. by one country over another
us goals
US Goals
  • Tired of European Wars
    • Want democracy and capitalism because…
      • Capitalistic democracies don’t fight each other
      • Bring blessings of liberty to the oppressed
      • Self-interest
  • US Capitalist Plot
    • US wanted to prop up the European countries
    • USSR saw this as a ploy to draw Eastern Europe into American Sphere
stalin breaks the yalta pact
Stalin Breaks the Yalta Pact
  • Yalta called for monitored elections in freed states
    • With FDR dead, Stalin pressed for control within these countries
    • Truman and Churchill angered
soviets begin to expand
Soviets Begin to Expand
  • Feeling threatened by Germany and provoked by the US
  • Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, eastern Germany,Finland, Yugoslavia, Baltics
slide15

US sees Soviet land grabs as offensive, not defensive

  • USSR sees US as trying to isolate them from the world
stalin emboldened
Stalin Emboldened
  • 1946 – with the new satellite states, Stalin predicts complete communist victory in the world
  • Cominform used to carry out plans
    • New Comintern
the iron curtain march 1946
The Iron Curtain, March 1946
  • Churchill, in speech in Fulton Missouri says an Iron Curtain has descended across Europe
george kennan and the x letter
George Kennan and the “X Letter”
  • American diplomat in Moscow and leading authority on Russia sends letter signed “X” to US intelligence
    • Warned US that it could NOTco-exist with USSR
    • Only option: CONTAINMENT – policy of keeping communism contained within its existing borders
    • USSR would only expand without serious risks, i.e. – did not want to fight war with US
greece and turkey in trouble
Greece and Turkey in Trouble
  • Stalin wants Greece and Turkey to free Black Sea Fleet
  • Stalin demanded military bases in the Turkish Straits, an area of sea belonging to Turkey
problems with greece
Problems with Greece
  • Political instability
    • Communist Party created the National Liberation Front (EAM)
    • National Republican Greek League (EDES)
  • During WWII, EDES received aid from Britain
    • Churchill met with Stalin in 1944 and agreed to give him Romania if the USSR backed off Greece
    • 1944 – the nationalists won and the size of the Communist party decreased
  • March 1946 – elections were held in Greece and the corrupt elections favored EDES
    • Communists formed the Democratic Army of Greece (DA) to fight to restore Greece to democracy
  • Britain and Greece turn to US for help because Yugoslavia is aiding the communists
  • 1949 – EDES defeated the DA
    • 80,000 people were killed and another 700,000 were left homeless
    • Economically destroyed

http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/GreekCivilWar1945-1949.asp

issues with turkey
Issues with Turkey
  • Feb 1945 – Turkey finally decided to side with Allies in WWII
    • Allowed Turkey to become charter member of the United Nations
  • Behind technologically and want help from Britain and US
truman s solution
Truman’s Solution
  • Truman Doctrine 1947
    • Says US will support free people trying to resist subjugation
      • Gives $400,000,000 to save Greece and Turkey
      • Paves the way for military options
      • What is the US getting into?
the marshall plan 1948
The Marshall Plan 1948
  • Communism becoming increasingly popular
  • George Marshall developed a plan to give $13,000,000,000
    • Food, loans, fuel to heat homes, machinery
    • Was also offered to satellite states in Eastern Europe
      • Yugoslavia took US aid
comecon the soviet response
Comecon – the Soviet Response
  • Marshall Plan seen as plan to split satellite states
    • Poland and Czechoslovakia tried but were forced to refuse the aid
  • Stalin introduced Comecon, a Soviet Marshall Plan
    • Originally called Molotov plan
    • Economic organization under the leadership of the Soviet Union
nato 1949
NATO - 1949
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • military alliance to counter Soviet Expansion
  • All for One, One for all
  • COLLECTIVE SECURITY – principle of mutual military assistance
a conspiracy stroke
A Conspiracy Stroke
  • Was he killed by KGB and Politburo because he was angling toward unwanted WWIII?
    • Hyper paranoid but Stalin “issued orders” for the guards to go home
    • Politburo slow to order help to Stalin
khrushchev vs stalin
Khrushchev vs. Stalin
  • Khrushchev was not as suspicious or cruel as Stalin (Co-prosperity)
    • Condemned some of the steps of the Stalin regime
    • Moved toward more peaceful relations with the West
  • Seems to be a lessening of Cold War tensions under Khrushchev
the warsaw pact 1955
The Warsaw Pact, 1955
  • Soviet Response to NATO
  • Agreed on paper not to interfere with another’s internal affairs
    • Really Soviet Union?
  • Only Yugoslavia was not a member of the pact