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COMPETENCY PowerPoint Presentation

COMPETENCY

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COMPETENCY

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  1. COMPETENCY Prof. Hemangi Bhalerao

  2. History Eg : Mc Ber and Company approached by U.S.State department • To select Junior Foreign Service Information Officer. • To represent America in foreign countries, make them like U.S and support U.S. policies • All white • Criterion Sample • BEI • Thematically analyze BEI (CAVE – Content analysis of verbal expression) • Cross Cultural sensitivity • Speed in Learning Political network • Positive Expectation of other

  3. Traditional Selection • How do you think they might have selected these officers

  4. Knowledge of liberal arts and culture • American History • Western civilization • English usage • Specialties such as economics and government

  5. Major Drawback • High passing scores (minorities and other less privileged cultures were less likely to pass) • Test score on FSIO GATB or General Background knowledge did not predict success

  6. What predicts performance ?

  7. Criterion sample : Superior vs average/poor • Original approach : Observe their daily work and find difference • Too expensive and impractical

  8. BEI • Behavioral Event Interview Idea of getting people to provide very detailed, blow by blow account of what they did in most critical situations they had been on the job

  9. Describe three peak successes and three major failures • Interviewer : Investigative reporter • What led up to the situation ? • Who was involved ? • What did you think about, feel and want to accomplish in dealing with the situation ? • What did you actually do ? • What happened ? • What was the outcome of the incident ?

  10. BEI : A combination of Flanagan’s critical incident method with Thematic Apperception Test. • Flanagan interested in identifying task elements of job and BEI interested in finding characteristics of people who did a job well. • CAVE (Content Analysis of verbal expression) ; to measure motivation

  11. I was a cultural affairs officer in North Africa. One day I received a directive from Washington saying I had to show a certain film featuring an American politician who I knew was seen as hostile to this country’s position. I knew that if I showed that film, this place would be burned down the next day by about 500 angry left wing students. Washington thinks the film is great, but the locals will find it offensive. What I had to figure out was how to show the film so that the Embassy can tell Washington we did and yet not offend anyone in the country ?

  12. Diplomat A • ..despite the troubles we had with them, I never stopped liking and respecting the student leaders. They were just becoming conscious of their nationalism, and that they were going to be the leaders of a greatly changed country. I could understand that they needed to rebel against us, to stand up to us, even throw us out-even when they wanted to burn my library..

  13. Diplomat B I finally came to the conclusion that (people of country X) were just stupid, dumb and unmotivated. I kept trying to schedule English classes , so these kids could learn enough to go to the United States to study, which is what they all said they wanted. But fewer and fewer showed up. So finally I cancelled the classes. What can you do with people like that ?

  14. The prime minister’s executive assistant’s mistress’s nephew who called shots on petroleum policy

  15. Competency It is anunderlying characteristicof anindividual that iscausally relatedto criterion referencedeffective and /or superior performance in a job or situation

  16. INTENT ACTION OUTCOME Personal Characteristics (Motive, Trait, Self- Concept, Knowledge) Behavior Job Performance Causal Relationships Causally related means the competency causes or predicts Behavior and performance

  17. Criterion Reference A characteristic is not a competency unless it predicts something meaningful in the real world. • Superior Performance • Effective Performance

  18. Underlying Characteristics • They indicate ways of behaving or thinking,generalizingacross situations, andenduringfor a reasonably long period of time. • They areintrinsic operant or self starting “master traits” that predict what people will do on their jobs long term without close supervision

  19. Types of Competency characteristics • Motives : Things consistently think about that cause action • “Drive, direct and select” behavior towards certain actions or goals and away from others. Eg. Achievement motivated people set challenging goals, personal responsibility and use feedback.

  20. Traits : Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations or information. Eg. : Reaction time and good eyesight are physical trait competencies of combat pilot

  21. Self Concept : A person’s attitude’s, values or self image. VALUES PREDICTS RESPONDENT OR REACTIVE MOTIVES ACTION

  22. Knowledge : Information a person has in his content areas. Eg. A surgeon’s knowledge of nerves and muscles in human body

  23. Skill : The ability to perform a certain physical or mental task. Eg. The dentist’s physical skill to fill a tooth without damaging the nerve.

  24. ICEBERG MODEL VISIBLE SKILL KNOWLEDGE SELF CONCEPT TRAIT MOTIVE HIDDEN

  25. SKILL SELF CONCEPT TRAIT, MOTIVE ATTITUDES, VALUES KNOWLEDGE Level of Competency Core personality Difficult to develop Surface – easily developed

  26. Core personality most difficult to develop – cost effective to select • Surface knowledge and skills relatively easy to develop – Training most cost effective to secure these abilities

  27. Categories • Threshold : Essential characteristic that everyone in a job needs to be minimally effective but does not distinguish superior from average. • Differentiating : Factors that distinguish between superior and average performers

  28. Clusters • Competency behavior Indicators appear to have scaling properties: a clear progression from lower to higher level on one or more dimensions • Competencies have been clustered on the basis of underlying intent, which is a level of analysis between deep underlying social motives and superficial behaviors Eg. Intent to develop subordinates skill and prepare for promotion

  29. Designing Competency Studies • Preparatory Work : Identify high values jobs to be studied in relation to following : • Organization Strategy : Steps taken to identify goals, critical success factors & strategic plans to reach goals • Organization Structure and Design : Identify critical jobs which are value-added “make or break” positions held by the people who will make the biggest difference in whether a firm succeeds . They define strategy, direction , responsibility for achieving major strategic outcome, controlling critical resources

  30. Steps • Define Performance effectiveness criteria : • Hard data : sales, profits, productivity measures • Supervisor nominations • Peer ratings • Subordinate ratings (managerial style, morale) • Customer rating

  31. 2. Identify Criterion Sample (Superior & Average performers). 3. Collect Data • BEI • Panels (brainstorm personal characteristic to perform) • Surveys 360 ratings • Expert System Data Base • Job Task/Function Analysis (List in details task, function and action the job holder performs) • Observation

  32. Star Questioning style • Situation • Task • Action • Results

  33. 4. Identify • Job tasks (elements of job person has to perform) • Job Competency Requirement (Characteristics of people who do the job well; “Competency Model”

  34. 5. Validate the Competency Model • BEI • Tests • Assessment Centre Ratings

  35. 6. Applications • Selection • Training • Professional Development • Performance Appraisal • Succession Planning • Evaluation of Training, professional development program

  36. Selection • Matching people and jobs (External Recruitment or Internal Promotion) The better the fit between the requirements of a job and competencies of the job holder, the higher the job performance and satisfaction will be. • Poor Performance • High turnover/Poor retention • Succession Planning • Long learning curve times • Equal opportunity for non traditional candidates • Organizational Change

  37. Performance Management System • Performance focus “what” of behavior shifted “how” of performance, oriented to future and focused on development. • Job performance criteria and appraisal criteria unequal and unfair • PM seen as bureaucratic having no impact on performance or development • PMS does not address need of employee for skill development or career advancement • PM doe not reinforce Strategy • Performance appraisal ratings are “inflated”

  38. Succession Planning Ongoing system of selecting competent employees to move to key jobs (vacant/future). These future jobs high level position but due to uncertainty in environment it may be for same level, even a level below the current or for lateral moves. • Promotion or placement outcome are poor • Very little vertical career opportunities so in lean and mean time either lateral of downward • Organizational changes require employees with different competencies. • Merger, Acquisition and reorganizations require the surviving firm to decide which existing employees are needed

  39. Development and Career Pathing • Competency can be taught including core motive competencies such as achievement motivation and traits such as self-confidence (learned optimism, reduction in depressive explanatory style, fear of failure, origin vs pawn self concept) • Adult experiential education • Motivation acquisition • Social learning • Self Directed chaneg

  40. Pay • Compensation refers to methods used to set fixed and variable pay for the jobs in an organization. Competency based pay is compensation for individual characteristics, for skills or competencies over and above the pay or job or organizational role itself commands. • Problem of internal equity and potential for misuse (how can one competency compared with other) • Inability to attract “good” competent employees • Perception that people with certain competencies add more value. • Value added is function of Competencies • Need to motivate and maintain state of art skill