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The Spirit of Reform
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  1. The Spirit of Reform 1828-1845

  2. A New Era in Politics • In the early 1800s, many states eliminated property ownership as a qualification for voting and as a result, more men gained the right to vote. • In the 1828 election, many of these voters elected Andrew Jackson as president. • Jackson believed in the participation of the average citizen in government.

  3. A New Era in Politics • Jackson supported the spoils system, the practice of appointing people to government jobs on the basis of party loyalty and support. • He believed this practice opened up the government to average citizens. • Jackson supported the national nominating convention, a system where delegates from the states met to choose the party’s presidential nominee.

  4. A New Era in Politics • When Jackson was nominated, presidential candidates were chosen through the caucussystem, in which congressional party members would choose the nominee.

  5. The Nullification Crisis • In the early 1800s, South Carolina had a weak economy and many blamed the nation’s tariffs. • They purchased most of their manufactured goods from England and the high tariffs made these goods expensive. • When Congress levied a new tariff in 1828 – called the Tariff of Abominations by critics – South Carolina threatened to secede, or withdraw, from the Union.

  6. The Nullification Crisis • John C. Calhoun, from South Carolina, was the vice president and he was torn between supporting the nation’s policies and his fellow South Carolinians. • He proposed nullification instead of secession. • This idea argued that since the states had created the Union, they had the right to declare a federal law null, or not valid

  7. The Nullification Crisis • After Congress passed another tariff law in 1832, South Carolina declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional. • Jackson considered this declaration an act of treason, and sent a warship to Charleston. • Congress passed the Force Bill, authorizing the president to use military to enforce acts of Congress.

  8. The Nullification Crisis • Senator Henry Clay pushed through a bill that would lower the tariffs within two years, South Carolina repealed its nullification of the tariff law. • Both sides felt they won and the problem was pushed aside, but not forgotten.

  9. Policies Toward Native Americans • Jackson supported the idea of moving all Native Americans to the Great Plains. • In 1830 he supported the Indian Removal Act, which allocated funds to relocated Native Americans. • Most Native Americans resettled in the West, but the Cherokee of Georgia refused. • They sued the state, and the case reached the Supreme Court.

  10. Policies Toward Native Americans • In Worcester v. Georgia, John Marshall ruled for the Cherokee and ordered the state to honor their property rights. • Jackson refused to support the decision • President Martin Van Buren sent in an army to force the remaining people to move west to Oklahoma.

  11. Policies Toward Native Americans • Thousands of Cherokees died while waiting in camps for removal to Oklahoma. • Thousands more died on the journey that became known as the Trail of Tears. • Although most Americans supported the removal policy, some National Republicans and a few religious denominations condemned it.

  12. Jackson Battles the National Bank • The Second Bank of the US was instrumental in keeping the nation’s money supply stable. • The Bank prevented state banks from loaning too much by asking them to redeem notes for gold and silver. • This helped keep inflation in check. • Many western settlers who needed easy credit opposed the Bank’s policies.

  13. Jackson Battles the National Bank • Jackson believed the Bank was unconstitutional , even though the Supreme Court ruled otherwise. • Jackson vetoed a bill that would extend the charter of the Bank for another 20 years. • He regarded the Bank as a benefit only to the wealthy.

  14. Jackson Battles the National Bank • During the 1832 presidential election, Jackson opposed the Bank. • Most Americans supported Jackson. Jackson viewed their support as a directive to destroy the Bank. • He removed the government’s deposits from the Bank, forcing it to call in its loans and stop lending.

  15. A New Party Emerges • By the mid-1830s, a new political party called the Whigsformed to oppose President Jackson. • Many members were former National Republicans, whose party had fallen apart. • Unlike Jackson’s Democrats, Whigs wanted to expand the federal government and encourage commercial development.

  16. A New Party Emerges • The Whigs could not settle on one candidate in the 1836 election. • They ran three candidates • Jackson’s popularity and the nation’s continued economic prosperity helped Democrat Martin Van Buren win. • Shortly after he took office, the country experienced an economic crisis, known as the Panic of 1837.

  17. A New Party Emerges • Thousands of farmers lost their land and unemployment soared. • The Whigs saw this economic crisis as an opportunity to defeat the Democrats and they nominated General William Henry Harrison for president in 1840 and John Tyler, a former Democrat for vice president. • His campaign slogan was “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too”

  18. A New Party Emerges • The Whig candidate won. • Harrison died 32 days after his inauguration and Tyler succeeded to the presidency. • Tyler opposed many Whig policies and sided with the Democrats who opposed issues such as the Third Bank and a higher tariff.

  19. The New Wave of Immigrants • Between 1815 and 1860 the US experienced a huge increase in immigrants. The largest group, almost 2 million, came from Ireland. • They were driven out because of widespread famine due to the destruction of the potato crop by a fungus. • The Irish generally settled in the Northeast and worked as unskilled laborers.

  20. The New Wave of Immigrants • The 2nd largest group of immigrants came from Germany. They settled in the Midwest, where they started farms and businesses. • The presence of people from different cultures, languages, and religions brought about feelings of nativism, or hostility toward foreigners, among many Americans.

  21. The New Wave of Immigrants • Anti-Catholic sentiments (feelings) towards the many Catholic immigrants led to the rise of nativist groups. • The groups pushed for laws banning immigrants and Catholics from holding public office. Members from various groups formed the American Party.

  22. The New Wave of Immigrants • Membership in the party was secret. When questioned, members were obliged to answer, “I know nothing.” As a result, the party was nicknamed the Know-Nothings.

  23. A Religious Revival • Religious leaders organized to revive the nation’s commitment to religion in a movement known as the Second Great Awakening. • This movement promoted the belief that all people could attain grace by readmitting God and Christ into their lives. • Joseph Smith, founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ( The Mormons).

  24. A Literary Renaissance • Many writers and thinkers of the day adopted the tenets of a movement known as romanticism. • This movement advocated feeling over reason and individuals above society. Transcendentalism was an expression of romanticism. • The philosophy urged people to transcend the limits of their mind and let their souls embrace the beauty of the universe. • Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were transcendentalist writers.

  25. A Literary Renaissance • Some writers created works that were uniquely American, focusing on the nation’s people, history, and natural beauty. • They included James Fenimore Cooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe, and Emily Dickinson. • More newspapers were produced as more Americans learned to read and write.

  26. The Reform Spirit • In the mid-1800s, many Americans worked to reform various aspects of society. • Dorothea Dix worked for improved treatment of the mentally ill. • Benevolent societies were first started to spread God’s teaching and then to combat social problems.

  27. The Spirit of Reform • Many reformers argued that the excessive use of alcohol was one of the major causes of crime and poverty. • These reformers advocated temperance, or moderation in the consumption of alcohol. • Temperance groups also pushed for laws to prohibit the sale of liquor.

  28. The Spirit of Reform • Some reformers focused on improving prison conditions in the nation. • Horace Mann focused on education reform. Mann pushed for more public education . • Mary Lyon founded the first institution of higher education for women only.

  29. The Early Women’s Movement • In the 1800s, people began dividing their life between the home and the workplace. Men generally went to work, while women took care of the house and children. • Most people at that time believed that home was the proper place for women. • Many women saw themselves as partners with their husbands, and as such believed that they should be treated equally.

  30. The Early Women’s Movement • In 1848 Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention, a meeting to focus on equal rights for women and one that marked the beginning of the women’s movement.

  31. Early Opposition to Slavery • Many Americans opposed slavery, but they differed on ways to end it. • Some antislavery societies supported an approach known as gradualism. They called for a gradual end to slavery. • Some antislavery societies believed that ending slavery would not end racism. They believed that the best solution was to send African Americans back to Africa.

  32. Early Opposition to Slavery • The American Colonization Society (ACS) was formed to move African Americans to Africa. • The ACS acquired land in West Africa and moved some free African Americans to a colony that eventually became the nation of Liberia. • The cost of transporting was high and most African Americans regarded the US as their home and had no desire to migrate to another continent. Colonization was not a realistic solution.

  33. The New Abolitionists • In the 1830s, the idea of abolition began to take hold. • Abolitionists argued that enslaved Africans should be freed immediately. • William Lloyd Garrison founded the Liberator, an antislavery newspaper that advocated emancipation, or the freeing of all enslaved people.

  34. The New Abolitionists • Free African Americans also played a prominent role in the abolitionist movement. • The most prominent was Frederick Douglass, who published his own antislavery newspaper, the North Star. • Sojourner Truth was another important African American abolitionist.

  35. The New Abolitionists • Why did abolitionism begin to gain support in the 1830s? • The Second Great Awakening, which focused on sin and repentance, stressed the idea that slavery was an evil of which the country needed to repent.

  36. The Response to Abolitionism • Many Northerners, even those who disapproved of slavery, opposed extreme abolitionism, viewing it as a threat to the existing social system. • Many warned that it would produce conflict between the North and South. • Others feared abolition would destroy the Southern economy, and thereby affect their own economy.

  37. The Response to Abolitionism • Most Southerners viewed slavery as essential to their economy, and therefore opposed abolition. • Some defended slavery by claiming that most enslaved people had no desire for freedom because they benefited from their relationship with slaveholders.

  38. The Response to Abolitionism • In 1831 Nat Turner led a revolt by slaves that killed more than 50 Virginians. • Southerners suppressed the circulation of the Liberator, and other abolitionist publications. • Southern postal workers refused to deliver such publications, and the House of Representatives, under pressure from the South, shelved all abolitionist petitions.

  39. The Response to Abolitionism • What was the Northern reaction to the abolitionist movement? • Many Northerners opposed extreme abolitionism, fearing that it would disrupt the social system. Some feared that it would result in an influx of African Americans. Others feared that abolition would destroy the Southern economy.

  40. Checking for Understanding • 1. the act or process of freeing enslaved persons • 2. theory that slavery should be ended gradually • 3. the immediate ending of slavery • A. gradualism B. Abolitionism C. Emancipation • 1.(C) 2. (A) 3.(B)