Chapter 8 “The Spirit of Reform”1828-1845 In a world where freedom and liberty ring from church bells and election ballots, people are seeking something more--change. Change of morals. Change in women’s rights. Change in education. Change for the common man. Change in the democracy. Change in slavery. A man emerges who is given a task to make these changes-General Andrew Jackson. He leads this spirit of change…..but for the better? By the end of the chapter, YOU DECIDE!
Section 1- “Jacksonian America” • I. A New Era in Politics -Ordinary citizens became more of a force in American politics. -People storm the White House and have a big party for Jackson! (Imagine Duck Dynasty coming to D.C.!! That’s what it was like!) A. States Expand Voting Rights -More people voting who do not own property. B. The People’s President -Jackson viewed as hero to frontiersmen in the West and people in the South and rural North. -Jackson…..was orphaned at age 14, little formal education, hard worker, STUBBORN, intelligent; War Hero, Congressman, took part in FIVE DUELS!!! (killed a man!). Mellowed out in his old age, though; -He was a slave owner, but believed in the preservation of the Union at all costs.
C. The Spoils System -Believed in the majority rule….do you? ( This is a change from previous Presidents.) -From that end, he practiced the SPOILS SYSTEM- the practice of appointing people to government jobs based on party loyalty and support. -He believed this to be more democratic QUESTION: How “democratic” are we? Did our Founders believe that simple majority votes always win? (HINT: How do you override a veto? How many votes do you need to change the Constitution, and get States to approve? Check and Balance System? Is our government ALWAYS supposed to function smoothly? You tell me!!!) The next time you have a Student Council meeting, you should suggest to have a 2/3 vote and see what happens!! LOL (I’m sorry, I digress. I have a boring life. : (
D. Electoral System -Jacksonians replaced the caucus system with the national nominating convention….delegates from the states gather to decide on the party’s presidential candidate, instead of powerful elites in Congress. • Democrats first to make the process more ‘democratic.’ • But, the parties have now adapted, and very powerful state caucuses have taken back over the nominating process, however, people from the states have to vote on who they like the best. So it’s still more democratic than it was before.
II. The Nullification Crisis • Debate over Nullification -South Carolina’s economy weakening -Blame it on protective tariffs -S.C. bought a lot of stuff from British -Congress levies another tariff in 1828…..South Carolina threatens to secede, or withdraw from Union! -John C. Calhoun (VICE-PRESIDENT!) believed in nullification- states declaring federal laws void. -Jackson disagreed…..believed in preserving the Union. -South Carolina votes on nullification -Jackson sends a warship to Charleston, threatens force! ***Henry Clay to the rescue!!!**** -Got a bill passed that agreed to lower tariffs by 1842…..Problem solved! ……For now. Both sides claimed victory.
III. Policies Toward Native Americans -Promised to move all Native Americans to the Great Plains -Many believed that it was a wasteland -Most people agreed with Jackson about Native Americans -Congress passed the “Indian Removal Act in 1830”- provided money to states to remove Indians. -Chief Justice John Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that the Federal Government must honor the property rights of Natives in Georgia. -Jackson reportedly said, “Marshall made his decision. Now let him enforce it.” WOW!!! That is so unconstitutional!
“TRAIL OF TEARS” • President Martin Van Buren, not Jackson, finally forced the Cherokee people out of Georgia/Alabama by Federal troops. • Marched them to ‘Oklahoma Territory’ • 2,000 Natives died in camps before they even left • 2,000 more died of starvation, disease, exposure to cold • Some National Republicans, religious groups (Methodists and Quakers) spoke out against it, but MOST supported it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCbUZqN8JZ0 Cherokee!!! OHHHHH!
IV. Jackson Battles the National Bank -hated the Second Bank of the United States -thought of it as a monopoly that benefited the rich -Bank helped to regulate money supply and keep it stable -States would often issue more paper money than what they have in gold reserve, allowing for more loans, BUT causing inflation!!! -National Bank regulated this practice of the states -Believed bank was unconstitutional, even though Supreme Court ruled it was! -Jackson vetoed bill to extend Bank’s charter -Jackson wins re-election easily in 1832 and believes that voters agree with him! -A huge financial crisis ensues called The Panic of 1837 and completely destroys the economy for his successor Martin Van Buren. Jackson is blamed by historians.
Kingly Rule? Jackson’s strong-willed leadership attracted many critics. Here the cartoonist portrays Jackson as an absolute monarch. What does Jackson appear to be trampling underfoot?
“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” • Whig Party wanted someone like Jackson who could win support from the “people.” • Portrayed him as a poor frontiersman…(just the opposite was true!) • Strategy worked! • Insisted on giving his inaugural address on bitterly cold day without a hat or coat….two hour speech! Died 32 days later of pneuomonia.
Section 2- “A Changing Culture” • New Immigrants (5 million from 1815-1860) -2 million new immigrants from Ireland. -potato famine in 1845 was cause. -Germans 2nd largest group(1.5 million). -Now, most people in our school can trace their heritage to German or Irish heritage. Because a lot of the Germans settled in rural areas to farm (Illinois). They were good and ran successful farms in Germany, too. (Show of hands…who are Germans? Who are Irish? Or Scots-Irish?)
II. Religious Revival • A. The Second Great Awakening -commitment to organized religion was weakening. -growth of scientific knowledge and rationalism. -Religious leaders met in Kentucky to start a revival. -Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians held camp meetings and attracted thousands of people all across the country. -Ministers preached that salvation could be attained by ALL people, not just a select few (Calvinism). -Used great emotion and ability to “sell” his message -Believed that society could not change due to politics….only people can change themselves from within. -As long as people remain selfish and immoral, no law or politics could change that.
III. Literary Renaissance • American Writers Emerge -Ralph Waldo Emerson -great quotes for graduation cards…lol -be one with natural world -Henry David Thoreau - “step to the tune of your own drummer” -don’t conform….do your own thing -Nathanial Hawthorne (The Scarlet Letter)-explored the psychological suffering of sin….classic! -Edgar Allan Poe –inventor of the short story-terror/mystery…classic! ‘Nuff said. -Herman Melville- Moby Dick (1851)….morality tale….classic! -Emily Dickinson-best female poet of the day-deeply emotional poetry
Review Questions • 1. How did Jackson expand ‘democracy’ for average people with the spoils system? • 2. How did state’s expand voting rights? • 3. Did Jackson support nullification or preservation of the Union? Does this surprise you? Why? • 4. How was the selection of candidates made more ‘democratic’? • 5. What caused The Panic of 1837? • 6. What was the Trail of Tears? • 7. Which book are you going to read from classic American authors, not the British J.K. Rowling????
Assignment • p. 272, #’s 1, 3, 4, and p. 277, #’s 1-5. How you can spot the influence of classic literature in science-fiction movies(Great scene!): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjYkuJb40J0
9.3-The War With Mexico Objective: Discuss the major events of the war with Mexico. *The United States was driven by a spirit called ‘Manifest Destiny.’ The Election of 1844 -Democrats dump Martin Van Buren in primary…. -Democrats choose JAMES K. POLK! (Mr. Allen’s fav.) Who’s Mrs. Lowry’s favorite??? -Polk is chosen because of his HONESTY!
Polk promises to do the following if elected: 1) Annex Texas from Mexico and Oregon Territory from Britain. 2) Vowed to buy California from Mexico. 3) Vowed to keep the balance between free and slave states. 4) Vowed to do all these things in one term and that’s it! -Polk’s strong stance forced the Whig’s to split their vote… -Polk wins election of 1844! -Polk stood strong in face of British opposition to Oregon claim. -Polk’s supporters cried “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” (54 degrees by 40 minutes North latitude) ( 54° 40' or Fight!) Southwest -Polk sought to buy California and Mexico refused offer. -Border dispute between Texas and Mexico LEADS TO WAR!!!
MEXICAN WAR! *Troops led by General Zachary Taylor cross the Nueces River. *Mexico attacks Taylor’s troops. *U.S. was committed to war….Congress approves! *Call for 50, 000 volunteers… *War goes better than expected (See Map on p. 310) *Mexico refuses to surrender…Polk begins phase 3 and takes Mexico City! *Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on Feb. 2, 1848 ends the war. *The land gained became the states of Texax, California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming.
Review Questions • How did Polk win the election of 1844? • What caused the war with Mexico? • What did 54° 40' or Fight mean? Who claimed this territory?