semantic web for earth and environmental terminology sweet rob raskin nasa jpl july 20 2006 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) Rob Raskin NASA/JPL July 20, 2006 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) Rob Raskin NASA/JPL July 20, 2006

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) Rob Raskin NASA/JPL July 20, 2006 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on

Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) Rob Raskin NASA/JPL July 20, 2006. Outline. Why use ontologies? SWEET ontologies Update/community processes. Why Use Ontologies?. Semantic Understanding is Difficult!. Sea surface temperature: measured 3 m above surface

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) Rob Raskin NASA/JPL July 20, 2006' - meriel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
semantic web for earth and environmental terminology sweet rob raskin nasa jpl july 20 2006
Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology(SWEET)Rob RaskinNASA/JPLJuly 20, 2006
outline
Outline
  • Why use ontologies?
  • SWEET ontologies
  • Update/community processes
slide4

Semantic Understanding is Difficult!

Sea surface temperature: measured 3 m above surface

Sea surface temperature: measured at surface

Variable t: temperature

Variable t: time

Data quality= 5

Let’s eat, Grandma.

Let’s eat Grandma.

Time flies like an arrow.

Fruit flies like a pie.

LA Times headline

Major combat operations in Iraq have ended

ontologies
Ontologies
  • General definition: “all that is known”
  • Computer science definition: Machine-readable definition of terms and how they relate to one another
    • As with a dictionary, terms are defined in terms of other terms
  • Provide shared understanding of concepts
  • Enable deeper semantics than typical controlled vocabulary for machine-to-machine communications
taxonomy vs ontology
Taxonomy vs. Ontology
  • Taxonomy (librarian perspective)
    • Subject Classification
    • Children are subcategory, not necessarily subclass of parent concepts
    • Example:
      • EarthScience>Meteorology>WeatherPersonalities>DaveJones
    • Used by: Library of Congress, Dewey Decimal System, Web OpenDirectory, GCMD Keyword
  • Ontology (knowledge engineer perspective)
    • Children are subclasses of parent concepts
      • Parent properties inherited by children
      • Multiple inheritance generally supported
    • Scalable
      • “New” concepts are often definable using multiple inheritance (e.g. Sea floor temperature) rather than creating a new definition
xml based ontology languages
XML-based Ontology Languages
  • XML satisfies desired properties for language syntax
  • However, there are too many possible ways that XML tags can be named and used
  • No standardization of XML tag meanings as in HTML (<b> </b> pair => renders in bold)
  • Additional standardized semantics needed to exploit shared understanding of concepts
  • W3C has adopted specializations of XML that predefine particular tags
    • Resource Description Formulation (RDF)
    • Ontology Web Language (OWL)
semantic web vision
Semantic Web Vision
  • Web page creators place XML tags around technical terms on web pages
  • XML tags point to ontology where term is defined
  • Search tools use this information to provide value-added services
    • Common search engines (Google) use these capabilities only minimally, at present
applications
Applications
  • Software tools can find “meaning” in resources for
    • Discovery
    • Fusion
    • Lineage
  • Requirements
    • Data products associated with objects in “science concept space”
      • Richer descriptions than DIFs
    • Data services associated with objects in “service concept space”
      • Richer descriptions than SERFs
    • Search/fusion tools that exploit ontologies
sweet
SWEET
  • Comprehensive upper-level ontology of Earth system science concepts
  • Initial emphasis on improving search for NASA Earth science data resources
  • Provides common semantic framework for representing Earth science data, information and knowledge
  • Populated manually initially from:
    • GCMD controlled and uncontrolled keywords
    • CF terms

Funding provided by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

slide12

SWEET Ontologies

Integrative

Earth Realm

Natural

Phenomena

Physical

Processes

Physical

Properties

Human

Activities

Substances

non-living

Data

Substances

Living

Auxiliary

Space

Time

Units

Numerics

sweet is a concept space
SWEET is a Concept Space
  • Enables scalable classification of Earth science and associated data concepts
  • Captures scientific philosophies
    • Reductionism (in orthogonal, facted ontologies)
    • Holisism (in integrative, unifying ontologies)
  • Uses standard language (OWL DL)
    • Enables domain specialists to expand and specialize the work of others
    • Enables concepts to be translatable into other languages/cultures using “sameAs” notions
    • Enables use of reasoners and other standard ontology tools
fragment of sweet

3DLayer

Fragment of SWEET

subClassOf

PlanetaryLayer

partOf

primarySubstance

=“air”

Atmosphere

partOf

AtmosphereLayer

upperBoundary

=50 km

subClassOf

subClassOf

sameAs=

“Lower

Atmosphere”

lowerBoundary

=15 km

Troposphere

Stratosphere

isUpperBoundaryOf

isLowerBoundaryOf

Tropopause

science ontology classes
Science Ontology Classes
  • Earth Realms
    • Atmosphere, SolidEarth, Ocean, LandSurface, …
  • Properties (includes default unit)
    • temperature, composition, area, albedo, …
  • Substances
    • CO2, water, lava, salt, hydrogen, pollutants, …
  • Living Substances
    • Humans, fish, …
  • Processes
    • Diffusion, absorption, …
integrative ontology classes
Integrative Ontology Classes
  • Phenomena
    • ElNino, Volcano, Thunderstorm, Deforestation)
    • Each has associated EarthRealms, PhysicalProperties, spatial/temporal extent, etc.
    • Specific instances included
      • e.g., 1997-98 ElNino
  • Human Activities
    • Fisheries, IndustrialProcessing, Economics, Public Good
  • History
    • State of planet or equipment
data ontology classes
Data Ontology Classes
  • Dataset characteristics
    • Format, data model, dimensions, …
  • Special values
    • Missing, land, sea, ice, ...
  • Parameters
    • Scale factors, offsets, …
  • Data services
    • Subsetting, reprojection, …
  • Quality measures
properties
Properties
  • Intervals
    • hasUpperLimit, hasLowerLimit, hasUnit
    • Applicable to spectral range and vertically structured layers of the Earth
  • Spatial relations
    • northOf, above, insideOf, hasDirection
  • Other numerical relations
    • hasCoordinate1, lessThan
sweet is middleware
SWEET is Middleware
  • The intention is for specialized user communities to extend its content
  • SWEET provides the common sense knowledge of Earth system science that is common to all disciplines
  • Domain specialists need to add only the incremental knowledge over and beyond the basic Earth system science knowledge
  • Community can submit extensions back into SWEET
    • “sameAs” tags can be tagged with your community name
sweet as an upper level earth science ontology
SWEET as an Upper Level Earth Science Ontology

Math

Physics

Chemistry

Space

import

Property

EarthRealm

Process, Phenomena

Substance

Data

Time

SWEET

import

Stratospheric

Chemistry

Biogeochemistry

Specialized domains

earth science ontologies
Earth Science Ontologies
  • Numerics are limited
    • No Cartesian product (multidimensional) space predefined
    • No numeric relations (+, <, >, …)
  • Community conventions must standardize extensions to language
sweet users
SWEET Users
  • ESML- Earth Science Markup Language
  • ESIP - Earth Science Information Partner Federation
  • GEON- Geosciences Network
  • GENESIS- Global Environmental & Earth Science Information System
  • IRI- International Research Institute (Columbia)
  • LEAD- Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery
  • MMI- Marine Metadata Initiative
  • NOESIS
  • PEaCE- Pacific Ecoinformatics and Computational Ecology
  • SESDI- Semantically Enabled Science Data Integration
  • VSTO- Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory
community objectives
Community Objectives
  • Enable domain specialists to use and extend SWEET content
  • Enable SWEET ontology to be accepted as a community standard
  • Submit SWEET to the NASA Earth Science Standards Process Group during 2007
collaboration web site
Collaboration Web Site
  • Basics
    • Blog, wiki, moderated discussion board, version control, validation services
  • Search across ontologies
  • Trace of dependencies across ontologies
    • RSS service to notify ontology developers when change has been made
    • Policy is to remove term only if absolutely necessary, to remain backward compatibility
  • Expansion into new domains
    • Geology, upper atmosphere, hydrosphere
  • Review board
for more information
For more information…
  • http://sweet.jpl.nasa.gov