lexical and semantic change n.
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Lexical and semantic change

Lexical and semantic change

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Lexical and semantic change

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  1. Lexical and semantic change Historical Linguistics

  2. Recent loan words Email Internet Event surfen joggen cool Hi Sushi Djihad

  3. Neologismen Handy Ein-Euro-Job Ich-AG Jamaika-Koalition Schwample ödig

  4. Semantic change Ein krasser Fall von Betrug Im krassen Gegensatz zu Ein krasses Missverständnis Krass! Das ist echt krass! Ein total krasser Film

  5. Sources of new words

  6. English loan words Computer Desktop Mouse Email Bytes Keyboard Disk Ram

  7. Loan words from Old Norse (800-1050) law leg neck bag cake egg fellow dirt anger knife skin give sister take

  8. Loan words from Latin GERM OE ME EME wall noon history occurrence street rule gesture expectation onion cap infancy insane church pear individual frequency

  9. Loan words from French (1100-1400) action adventure age person bucket powder carpenter river coast country cost usual clear approach advice prefer enjoy air

  10. Loan words from other languages moose [native American] tobacco [native American] canoe [native American] curry [East Asian] jungle [East Asian] mango [East Asian] kangaroo [Australia

  11. Loan words from other languages banana [Africa] chimpanzee [Africa] zebra [Africa] canyon [Spanish] taco [Spanish] angst [German] kindergarten [German]

  12. What motivates borrowing? • New things need new names • Loan words are often ‘trendy‘ • Language contact, bilingualism

  13. Loan Translations Greek: sym-pathia ‘with-suffering‘ Latin: com-passion ‘with-suffering‘ German: Mit-leid ‘with-suffering‘

  14. Loan Translations from German German English Übermensch superman Weltanschauung worldview Antikörper antibody Gedankenexperiment thought experiment Biergarten beer garden

  15. German loan translation Skyscraper (Engl.) > Wolkenkratzer Grand-mère (Fren.) > Großmutter Television (engl.) > Fernsehen

  16. Phonological treatment of loan words Genre (French) > genre (English) Müsli (German) > muesli (English) [mysli] [mjusli]

  17. Phonological treatment of loan words Komputer Keyboard Multimedia Microchip London Arkansas Restaurant Parfüm Jazz

  18. Old English [v] – [f] [lUvU] love [f{st] fast [fi:fta] fifth [Offrian] to offer [Ovnas] oven [hr{vn] raven

  19. Modern English [v] – [f] very voice virgin victory value vowel vine vinegar few vs. view fat vs. vat rifle vs. rival strife vs. strive

  20. Developmement of [Z] measure pleasure treasure leisure Bet you! [b@t yU] [b@tSU] camouflage garage massage genre

  21. Phonotactics schmuck schlep schnoz spiel schnapps schnauzer schnitzel schmaltz shrink shred shrimp

  22. Morphological treatment of loan words kindergarten kindergarten-s (*kindergärten) phenomenon phenomena criterion criteria datum data hypothesis hypotheses

  23. German plural Chip Chips Gang Gangs Freak Freaks Email Emails Komputer Modul Maus/Mouse

  24. German genus Die Band Das Buisness Die Kapelle Das Geschäft Check-in Black-out Hot Dog Email

  25. German verb inflection ein-checken aus-checken an-törnen ab-fucken Ich surfe Du surfst Er surft Wir surfen Ihr surft Sie surfen ge-surf-t ge-jogg-t ge-dance-t

  26. English verbal prefixes re-do inter- pre- re- reiterate repeate reunion resign resist restrict

  27. Grammatical borrowing The Balkan Sprachbund

  28. The Balkan Sprachbund Rumanian om-ul ‘man-the’ Bulgarian kniega-ta ‘man-the’ Albanian mik-u ‘man-the’ I saw Peter leave. I saw that Peter left. Periphrastic future

  29. Order adjective-noun

  30. Prepositions - postpositions

  31. Prefixing - Suffixing

  32. Tone

  33. Tea: cha - te

  34. Compounding girlfriend soundproof ice cream jetlag lipstick close-up

  35. Affixation pre- -ness re- -ful anti- -ity non- -al ex- -ize over- -er

  36. Zero derivation bridge to bridge sandwich to sandwich email to email

  37. Clipping telephon > phone gymnasium > gym influenzia > flu

  38. Blending motor + hotel > motel smoke + fog > smog channel + tunnel > chunnel

  39. Acronyms Acquired immune deficiency syndrom > AIDS North Atlantic Treaty Organization > NATO Radio detecting and ranging > radar Strategic Arms Limitation Talk > SALT For your information > FYI

  40. Eponyms Sandwich Hamburger Kodak Xerox

  41. Word creation blurb chirrup blatant pentium

  42. Semantic change Meaning 1 Meaning 2 Meaning 2 Meaning 1

  43. Semantic change ‘to write’ From: ‘to cut’, ‘to scratch’ ‘timber’ + ‘Zimmer’ From word for ‘building’

  44. Metaphorand Metonomy to kill to terminate to take care of to eliminate to dispose of drunk blasted ripped smashed wasted tea ‘evening meal’ head ‘leader’ give me a hand ‘help me’

  45. Widening and Narrowing Dog Original meaning: ‘specific type of dog’ Salary From Lat. ‘salarium’, i.e. soldiers allotment of salt > soldiers’ wages > pay Arrive Original meaning: ‘arrive by ship’ Meat ‘food including non-meaty food’ Wife ‘woman’ Deer ‘animal’ Fowl ‘bird’ (cf. Vogel) Starve ‘to die’ (cf. sterben)

  46. Degeneration and Elevation Spinster ‘older unmarried woman who spins’ Mistress ‘woman who has control over household’ Peasant ‘small farmer’ Knight ‘mounted warrior serving a king’

  47. Traugott: From concrete to abstract ‘felan’ (meaning ‘touch’) > ‘feel’ (emotional) ‘realize’ (make real) > ‘realize’ (understand) ‘see’ (visual) > ‘see’ (understand) ‘hot’ (temperature) > ‘hot’ (sexually, etc.) ‘shit’ (physical) > ‘shit’ (interjection)

  48. Traugott: From concrete to abstract ‘while’ (Da hwile De ‘at the time that’) > conjunction ‘but’ (on the outside) > conjunction ‘well’ (adverb of ‘good’) > discourse marker ‘this/that’ (demonstrative) > complementizer ‘there’ (demonstrative) > existential marker

  49. Traugott: From concrete to abstract Deontic modal verbs > Epistemic modal verbs She must go. > This must be it.