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Lexical and semantic change. Historical Linguistics. Recent loan words. Email Internet Event surfen joggen cool Hi. Sushi Djihad. Neologismen. Handy. Ein-Euro-Job Ich-AG Jamaika-Koalition Schwample ödig. Semantic change. Ein krasser Fall von Betrug Im krassen Gegensatz zu

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lexical and semantic change

Lexical and semantic change

Historical Linguistics

recent loan words
Recent loan words

Email

Internet

Event

surfen

joggen

cool

Hi

Sushi

Djihad

neologismen
Neologismen

Handy

Ein-Euro-Job

Ich-AG

Jamaika-Koalition

Schwample

ödig

semantic change
Semantic change

Ein krasser Fall von Betrug

Im krassen Gegensatz zu

Ein krasses Missverständnis

Krass!

Das ist echt krass!

Ein total krasser Film

english loan words
English loan words

Computer

Desktop

Mouse

Email

Bytes

Keyboard

Disk

Ram

loan words from old norse 800 1050
Loan words from Old Norse (800-1050)

law leg

neck bag

cake egg

fellow dirt

anger knife

skin give

sister take

loan words from latin
Loan words from Latin

GERM OE ME EME

wall noon history occurrence

street rule gesture expectation

onion cap infancy insane

church pear individual frequency

loan words from french 1100 1400
Loan words from French (1100-1400)

action adventure

age person

bucket powder

carpenter river

coast country

cost usual

clear approach

advice prefer

enjoy air

loan words from other languages
Loan words from other languages

moose [native American]

tobacco [native American]

canoe [native American]

curry [East Asian]

jungle [East Asian]

mango [East Asian]

kangaroo [Australia

loan words from other languages11
Loan words from other languages

banana [Africa]

chimpanzee [Africa]

zebra [Africa]

canyon [Spanish]

taco [Spanish]

angst [German]

kindergarten [German]

what motivates borrowing
What motivates borrowing?
  • New things need new names
  • Loan words are often ‘trendy‘
  • Language contact, bilingualism
loan translations
Loan Translations

Greek: sym-pathia ‘with-suffering‘

Latin: com-passion ‘with-suffering‘

German: Mit-leid ‘with-suffering‘

loan translations from german
Loan Translations from German

German English

Übermensch superman

Weltanschauung worldview

Antikörper antibody

Gedankenexperiment thought experiment

Biergarten beer garden

german loan translation
German loan translation

Skyscraper (Engl.) > Wolkenkratzer

Grand-mère (Fren.) > Großmutter

Television (engl.) > Fernsehen

phonological treatment of loan words
Phonological treatment of loan words

Genre (French) > genre (English)

Müsli (German) > muesli (English)

[mysli] [mjusli]

phonological treatment of loan words17
Phonological treatment of loan words

Komputer

Keyboard

Multimedia

Microchip

London

Arkansas

Restaurant

Parfüm

Jazz

old english v f
Old English [v] – [f]

[lUvU] love

[f{st] fast

[fi:fta] fifth

[Offrian] to offer

[Ovnas] oven

[hr{vn] raven

modern english v f
Modern English [v] – [f]

very voice virgin

victory value vowel

vine vinegar

few vs. view

fat vs. vat

rifle vs. rival

strife vs. strive

developmement of z
Developmement of [Z]

measure

pleasure

treasure

leisure

Bet you!

[b@t yU]

[b@tSU]

camouflage

garage

massage

genre

phonotactics
Phonotactics

schmuck

schlep

schnoz

spiel

schnapps

schnauzer

schnitzel

schmaltz

shrink

shred

shrimp

morphological treatment of loan words
Morphological treatment of loan words

kindergarten kindergarten-s (*kindergärten)

phenomenon phenomena

criterion criteria

datum data

hypothesis hypotheses

german plural
German plural

Chip Chips

Gang Gangs

Freak Freaks

Email Emails

Komputer

Modul

Maus/Mouse

german genus
German genus

Die Band

Das Buisness

Die Kapelle

Das Geschäft

Check-in

Black-out

Hot Dog

Email

german verb inflection
German verb inflection

ein-checken

aus-checken

an-törnen

ab-fucken

Ich surfe

Du surfst

Er surft

Wir surfen

Ihr surft

Sie surfen

ge-surf-t

ge-jogg-t

ge-dance-t

english verbal prefixes
English verbal prefixes

re-do

inter-

pre-

re-

reiterate

repeate

reunion

resign

resist

restrict

grammatical borrowing
Grammatical borrowing

The Balkan

Sprachbund

the balkan sprachbund
The Balkan Sprachbund

Rumanian om-ul ‘man-the’

Bulgarian kniega-ta ‘man-the’

Albanian mik-u ‘man-the’

I saw Peter leave.

I saw that Peter left.

Periphrastic future

compounding
Compounding

girlfriend soundproof

ice cream jetlag

lipstick close-up

affixation
Affixation

pre- -ness

re- -ful

anti- -ity

non- -al

ex- -ize

over- -er

zero derivation
Zero derivation

bridge to bridge

sandwich to sandwich

email to email

clipping
Clipping

telephon > phone

gymnasium > gym

influenzia > flu

blending
Blending

motor + hotel > motel

smoke + fog > smog

channel + tunnel > chunnel

acronyms
Acronyms

Acquired immune deficiency syndrom > AIDS

North Atlantic Treaty Organization > NATO

Radio detecting and ranging > radar

Strategic Arms Limitation Talk > SALT

For your information > FYI

eponyms
Eponyms

Sandwich

Hamburger

Kodak

Xerox

word creation
Word creation

blurb

chirrup

blatant

pentium

semantic change42
Semantic change

Meaning 1

Meaning 2

Meaning 2

Meaning 1

semantic change43
Semantic change

‘to write’ From: ‘to cut’, ‘to scratch’

‘timber’ + ‘Zimmer’ From word for ‘building’

metaphor and metonomy
Metaphorand Metonomy

to kill to terminate

to take care of

to eliminate

to dispose of

drunk blasted

ripped

smashed

wasted

tea ‘evening meal’

head ‘leader’

give me a hand ‘help me’

widening and narrowing
Widening and Narrowing

Dog Original meaning: ‘specific type of dog’

Salary From Lat. ‘salarium’, i.e. soldiers allotment of salt > soldiers’ wages > pay

Arrive Original meaning: ‘arrive by ship’

Meat ‘food including non-meaty food’

Wife ‘woman’

Deer ‘animal’

Fowl ‘bird’ (cf. Vogel)

Starve ‘to die’ (cf. sterben)

degeneration and elevation
Degeneration and Elevation

Spinster ‘older unmarried woman who spins’

Mistress ‘woman who has control over household’

Peasant ‘small farmer’

Knight ‘mounted warrior serving a king’

traugott from concrete to abstract
Traugott: From concrete to abstract

‘felan’ (meaning ‘touch’) > ‘feel’ (emotional)

‘realize’ (make real) > ‘realize’ (understand)

‘see’ (visual) > ‘see’ (understand)

‘hot’ (temperature) > ‘hot’ (sexually, etc.)

‘shit’ (physical) > ‘shit’ (interjection)

traugott from concrete to abstract48
Traugott: From concrete to abstract

‘while’ (Da hwile De ‘at the time that’) > conjunction

‘but’ (on the outside) > conjunction

‘well’ (adverb of ‘good’) > discourse marker

‘this/that’ (demonstrative) > complementizer

‘there’ (demonstrative) > existential marker

traugott from concrete to abstract49
Traugott: From concrete to abstract

Deontic modal verbs > Epistemic modal verbs

She must go. > This must be it.