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English & Communications for College. (Part II). Brief Contents. Chapter 7 Technical Communication Chapter 8 Developing and Using Graphic and Visual Aids Chapter 9 Communicating with Customers Chapter 10 Nonverbal Communication Chapter 11 Presentations and Meetings

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brief contents
Brief Contents
  • Chapter 7 Technical Communication
  • Chapter 8 Developing and Using Graphic and Visual Aids
  • Chapter 9 Communicating with Customers
  • Chapter 10 Nonverbal Communication
  • Chapter 11 Presentations and Meetings
  • Chapter 12 Getting Your Job
chapter 7 technical communication
Chapter 7 Technical Communication
  • 7.1 writing to instruct
  • 7.2 writing to describe
  • 7.3 writing to persuade
7 1 writing to instruct
7.1 writing to instruct
  • Objectives:
  • 1. list the components of effective instructions
  • 2. describe how to write effective steps for instructions
  • 3. describe how a manual is similar to and different from instructions
  • 4. describe how to make information in a manual easy to locate
the purpose of instructions and manuals
The purpose of instructions and manuals
  • Instructions tell readers how to do something.
  • Manuals are sets of instructions combined with explanations, descriptions, definitions, and other related information.
  • Both instructions and manuals should provide all the guidance readers need in order to carry out the tasks.
components of effective instructions
Components of Effective Instructions
  • Four components:

1. A clear and limiting title

2.An introduction and a list of needed tools or materials

3.Numbered steps in sequential order

4.A conclusion

clear and limiting title
Clear and limiting Title
  • The title should explain what the reader will do with the topic, limiting, specific enough for readers to know what it does and does not cover
  • Unclear and too broad: the ABC Modem
  • Clear and limiting: how to install the ABC Modem
introduction and list of needed tools or materials
Introduction and list of needed tools or materials
  • The introduction should explain:
  • 1.what the instructions should accomplish
  • 2.who should follow the instructions
  • 3.when and why to follow the instructions
  • List of needed tools or materials include:
  • 1.special skills or knowledge required
  • 2.time frame
  • 3. cautions
  • 4.definitions
numbered steps in sequential order and conclusion
Numbered steps in sequential order and conclusion
  • Provide everything readers need , without overwhelming them with details or unneeded information
  • Conclusion describe the expected results in the last sentence or summarized the major steps.
guideline for writing effective steps
Guideline for Writing Effective Steps
  • Number each step and start it with a verb.
  • Put the steps in sequential order
  • Describe each step separately so readers will not overlook a step
  • Indent any explanations under the appropriate step
  • If a step should be carried out only under certain conditions, describe the conditions first.
  • If you have many steps or several pocedure, group them under subheadings
  • Single-space the information within a step,double-space between steps.
  • Include diagrams or other graphics whenever they will clarify the instructions
  • Highlight warnings and cautions so readers do not overlook them
  • Create a clear , inviting format by using number, letters , indentation, boldface, and lots of white space.
  • As part of the revision process, ask someone to try following your instructions
writing effective manuals
Writing Effective Manuals
  • Provide how a machine works and how use , maintain , and repair it.
  • Have a clear title and be well organized , clearly written , and appropriate for the intended readers.
  • Be divided into sections or chapters, one for each main procedure or process.
  • May have a glossary , a list of unfamiliar terms, abbreviations, or acronyms.
  • Might include an appendix , a collection of supplemental material at the end of the manual.
writing effective manuals1
Writing Effective Manuals
  • Making Information Accessible in Manuals

1.Detailed table of contents


3.Tabs or dividers

4.Graphics and diagrams

5.Modifications for different experience levels

7 2 writing to describe
7.2 Writing to Describe
  • Objectives:
  • 1. explain how a process description differs from a set of instruction
  • 2.describe the components of objects and mechanism descriptions.
  • 3. explain how to write a description of an object or a mechanism
  • 4. list the components of a process description
types of description writing
Types of description Writing
  • A description is a verbal and visual picture of something.

1.Object description.P.10

2. Mechanism description. P.10

3. Process description.P10

Form description: one paragraph explanation

Informal description: introduction, body , and conclusion.

components of a formal object or mechanism description
Components of a Formal Object or Mechanism Description
  • 1.a clear and limiting title
  • 2. an introduction and overview
  • 3. a part-by-part description
  • 4. a conclusion
guidelines for writing object and mechanism description
Guidelines for Writing Object and Mechanism Description
  • Describe the object or part by it shape, dimensions, size ,color, texture, position, and/ or material
  • For most of your descriptions, be objective.
  • Be specific and precise, avoiding vague or general terms
  • Compare the unfamiliar to the familiar
writing a process description
Writing a Process Description
  • Components of a process description
  • Clear and limiting title
  • Introduction
  • Step-by-step description
  • conclusion
7 3 writing to persuade
7.3 Writing to Persuade
  • Objectives:

1.Plan a persuasive letter

2.Organize a persuasive letter

3. Organize a sales letter and a collection letter.

4. Plan and organize a propsal

the purpose of persuasive writing
The purpose of Persuasive Writing
  • A lot of things to be persuaded to be done: to work overtime on a special project, to use a new form, to place orders, to pay the bill, etc.
  • Most persuasive letters occurs in memos, letters and proposals.
planning a persuasive letter
Planning a persuasive letter
  • Identify the objective
  • Identify the main idea
  • Determine the supporting information
  • Adjust the content to the reader
organizing a persuasive letter
Organizing a persuasive letter
  • Persuasive letter are organized in indirect order—describe the need convincingly before making your request
  • Steps:
  • Gain the reader’s attention
  • Show the reader that he or she has a need
  • Explain your solution to that need—your requst
  • Present the supporting information
  • End by asking for s specific action
writing different kinds of persuasive messages
Writing Different Kinds of Persuasive Messages
  • Sales letters—persuade the potential customers to purchase a product or service.
  • Collection letters—persuade a customer to pay a past-due bill.
four stages of collection letter
Four stages of collection letter
  • 1) the reminder stage—assumes has simply forgotten to make a payment, in a direct order.
  • ,2) the strong reminder—sent when no response to the first reminder, direct and firm.
  • 3) the discussion stage---to obtain the full payment , partial payment as temporary measure, or an explanation of why the customer has not made the appropriate payment, indirect way
  • 4) the urgency stage—to obtain payment and advise the customer of the consequence if payment is not made immediately, direct and the tone is firm.
writing proposals
Writing Proposals
  • A proposal is a formal report that describes a problem and recommends a solution.
  • when you write a proposal , you suggest or propose a practical way to meet the reader’s need.
  • Two kinds: solicited proposal—to ask for proposals to meet an identified need; unsolicited proposal—the receiver has not asked for this type of proposal.
writing proposals1
Writing Proposals
  • Planning a proposal—what is most likely to motivate this receiver to accept this proposal?
  • Organizing a proposal –contain ten elements: introduction, background, need, scope of project ,action of project, schedule, cost, qualification, call for action, supporting information
  • Formatting a proposal: follow the RFP closely in solicited proposal; and use subheadings to make the document inviting to read and easy to skim in unsolicited proposal.