Weight Management/ Nutrition. “A man’s health can be judged by which he takes two at a time – pills or stairs” - Joan Welsh. Counting Calories…. What is a calorie? How is caloric content of food determined? How do we determine recommended daily caloric intake? Resting metabolic rate
he takes two at a time – pills or stairs”
- Joan Welsh
Recommended Caloric Intake (for weight increase)
Mats: 2678 Calories daily expenditure (RMR + Activity)
2678 C/ 150 C (per serving) = 17.8 servings to fulfill daily caloric need just with whole milk
Fat: 17.8 servings x 8 g/serving = 142.82 g total (over-consuming since RDI for me is ~85 g)
regular exercise, one you can follow for a
lifetime, anywhere at anytime
w When intake exceeds usage, stored within the cells as fat, particularly in adipocytes
w Have less impact on blood lipid levels
Soft drinks, honey/syrups, ice cream, whole wheat bread, raisins, potatoes, carrots, beer
Moderate GI foods (GI 60-85)
Pastry, pita bread, white rice, orange, popcorn, banana, low-fat ice cream
Low GI foods (GI <60)
Spaghetti, milk, grapefruit, beans, apples, pears, peanuts, and yogurt
Glycemic Index (GI)
The glycemic response to carbohydrate varies depending on the food
Astrand’s Glycogen Loading
1. Complete an exhaustive training bout 7 days before competition.
2. Eat fat and protein for the next 3 days and reduce training load; this increases the activity of glycogen synthase in response to low muscle glycogen.
3. Eat a CHO-rich diet for remaining 3 days before competition and reduce training load; because of increased glycogen synthesis, more glycogen is stored.
w Reduce training intensity
w Eat a normal, healthy mixed diet with at least 55% CHO
3 days before competition
w Reduce training to daily warm-up of 10 to 15 minutes
w Eat a CHO-rich diet
Sherman’s Glycogen Loading
CHO and placebo drinks were taken every 15 min during exercise
Carbohydrate intake during exercise does not produce the same hypoglycemic effects as pre-exercise intake. This difference may be caused by increased muscle fiber glucose uptake during muscle contraction that decreases the need for insulin during exercise, or insulin-binding sites may be altered during muscular activity.
Ergogenic Properties of CHO
w Glycogen loading the muscles may delay onset of fatigue.
w Maintaining normal blood glucose levels may allow the muscles to obtain more energy from blood glucose, sparing liver and muscle glycogen reserves.
Ergogenic Properties of Fat
w Use of FFAs for energy production can delay exhaustion during exercise.
w Chronic endurance training results in more reliance on fat for energy.
w For some individuals, caffeine promotes fat use and improves performance.
Ergogenic Properties of Protein
w Builds fat-free muscle mass.
w Strength athletes need 1.4 to 1.8 g per kg body weight versus 0.8 g per kg RDA (i.e., normal x 2).
w Endurance athletes need 1.2 to 1.4 g per kg body weight versus 0.8 g per kg RDA (i.e., normal x 1.5).
w Diets exceeding 1.8 to 2.0 g per kg body weight per day have not been proven to provide additional benefits and may damage kidney function. Also, excess protein is just converted to fat.
w Supplements are generally not needed providing caloric intake is adequate.