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Nutrition. Sports Medicine I. Proper nutrition can contribute to: Strength development Flexibility Cardiorespiratory endurance Weight Management Brain function We must have a firm concept of nutritional facts to educate the athlete and be an informational resource for the athlete.

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Nutrition


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    1. Nutrition Sports Medicine I

    2. Proper nutrition can contribute to: • Strength development • Flexibility • Cardiorespiratory endurance • Weight Management • Brain function • We must have a firm concept of nutritional facts to educate the athlete and be an informational resource for the athlete.

    3. Classes of Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals • Water

    4. Nutrients are important for: • Growth, repair, maintenance • Regulation of body processes • Energy production • Regulation of metabolism

    5. High nutrient dense foods are high in nutrients and low in calories: Fruits Vegetables Chicken Beans Low nutrient dense foods are low in nutrients and high in calories: Cookies Cakes Donuts Potato chips Nutrient Dense Foods

    6. Carbohydrates • Body’s most efficient energy source • 4 cal per gram • Broken down to glucose • Glucose is turned into glycogen and stored in muscles • Main energy source for athletes • Excess stored as fat

    7. Types of Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are classified as simple or complex. • Sugars • Are simple carbohydrates • Broken down into monosaccharides and disaccharides. • Monosaccharides – single sugars • fruits, syrup, honey • glucose • Disaccharides – 2 sugars combined • Milk sugar (lactose) • Table sugar (sucrose) • Leads to quick rise of blood glucose level • Causing hyperglycemia • Which increases the insulin level in the body which causes a reactive hypoglycemia • Glucose turned directly into fat

    8. Types of Carbohydrates • Starches • Complex Carbohydrates • Body cannot directly use starches, they must be broken down into simple sugars. • Principle source of glucose and energy • Digested slow – causing a slower rise of blood glucose • If eating in moderation - more is stored in muscles and less as fat • Whole grain rice, WG pasta, WG breads, potatoes

    9. Fiber • Not an actual carbohydrate • Structural part of plants. • Non digestible – • aids in elimination of waste – speeds up the process. Reduces risk of colon cancer • Two types: • Soluble – fruit (apples, citrus, and berries), vegetables, oatmeal, dry beans • Insoluble – whole grain breads and cereal, nut

    10. Fiber • Adds bulk to meal • Reduces risk of colon cancer and coronary artery disease • Soluble fiber attaches itself to cholesterol and helps remove it from the body • Reduces incidents of obesity, constipation, colitis, appendicitis, and diabetes • Intake should be 25g per day • Average person only consumes 10-15g per day

    11. Athletes and Carbohydrates • Energy balance – must balance food/calorie intake with energy expenditure. • Main energy source for long activities • Should account for 55-60% of total caloric intake

    12. Fats • 9 cal per gram • Most concentrated fuel source • 40-50% of the average American diet consists of fats • Makes food flavorful • Contains fat soluble vitamins (A, D, K, E) • Essential for normal growth and development • Should consist of 25-30% of daily calories • Mostly of good fats (mono and polyunsaturated)

    13. Fats • Four types of fats • Saturated • Trans fatty acids • Unsaturated • Monunsaturated • polyunsaturated • Omega fatty acids

    14. Saturated fat • Aids in production of bad cholesterol (LDL) • Derived from fatty acids in animals • Cholesterol - sticky wax substance that adheres to blood vessel walls • Leading cause of heart disease - atherosclerosis

    15. Trans Fatty Acids • Increases bad cholesterol (LDL) • Hidden in most foods that processed • Cookies, crackers, dairy products, meat, fast foods • Key term: partially hydrogenated oil • Causes heart disease • Avoid and eat as little as possible

    16. Unsaturated • Good fats • Derived from plants • Key benefits • Helps for growth, hair, nails, skin • Protection of internal organs • Used in absorption and transportation of fat soluble vitamins • Helps produce good cholesterol (HDL) which helps eliminate bad cholesterol (LDL)

    17. Unsaturated • Monounsaturated – best, • liquid at room temperature. • Examples: Canola oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, avocados, nuts • Polyunsaturated – good • Include omega-6 & omega-3 fatty acids • Soybean oil, corn oil, salmon, mackerel, trout

    18. Omega fatty acids oils • Found in fish products • Very good for healthy heart • Play a crucial role in brain function and in the normal growth and development of your body.

    19. Athletes and Fat • Helps with fuel sources when glycogen levels are depleted • If no fat stores, then body will consume lean body tissue and diminish performance • Should account for 25-30% of total caloric intake

    20. Protein • 4 cal per gram • Not an efficient energy source • Main function to maintain and repair body tissues • Proteins are made of 20 amino acids • Amino acids are basic units that makes up protein. Different combinations allow for different uses • Body produces eleven of the amino acids, • The other nine are called essential amino acids and must be consumed to complete the protein • Must be wary of high fat/high protein foods (red meat). Look for low fat/high protein (chicken and beans) • Consist of 15-20% of daily calories

    21. Regulator Nutrients • Vitamins • Serve as regulators in body functions, roles of some vitamins are still being studied. • Fat soluble • A, D, E, K • Found in fatty portions of foods and oils • Water soluble • C, B-complex • Help regulate metabolism, build bones/teeth, strengthens immune system • Cannot be stored and must be supplied in the diet each day

    22. Fat soluble vitamin sources • A – milk, liver, egg yolk, deep green, orange, and yellow fruits and vegetables • Maintains skin and other cells that line the inside of the body • Bone and tooth development; growth • Night vision • D – fortified dairy, exposure to sun light, eggs • Normal bone growth and development • E– vegetable oils, some vegetables and whole grains • Protects cell membranes • Prevents destruction of Polyunsaturated fats caused by oxidizing agents • K – green leafy vegetables • Production of blood clotting substances

    23. Water soluble vitamin sources • Thiamin – cereal products, pork, peas, dried beans • Helps with extracting energy from carbohydrates and fats • Riboflavin – milk, liver, fruits and vegetables, (enriched breads and cereals) • Helps extracts energy from nutrient sources • Niacin – liver, red meat, poultry, peanut butter, legumes, (enriched bread and cereals) • Helps extract energy from nutrient sources • B6– white meats, whole grains, liver, egg yolk, bananas • Metabolism of protein; production of hemoglobin • Folic Acid – liver, mushrooms, fruits, green leafy vegetables • Production of genetic material • C – fruits and vegetables • Immune function; formation and maintenance of connective tissue; tooth and bone formation

    24. Regulator Nutrients • Antioxidants • May prevent premature aging, certain cancers, heart disease, and other health problems • Vitamins C, E and beta carotene • Found in fruits and vegetables

    25. Regulator Nutrients • Minerals • Inorganic compounds • Eat a variety of foods • Most are stored in the liver and bones • Iron (energy metabolism and oxygen transport) • Phosphorous (skeletal development, tooth formation) • Copper (formation of hemoglobin) • Magnesium (energy supplying reactions) • Zinc (normal growth and development) • Calcium (bone formation, clotting, muscle contractions) • Iodine (production of hormone thyroxin) • Sodium and Potassium (nerve conduction) • Fluoride (strengthens bones and teeth)

    26. Regulator Nutrients • Water • Most essential nutrient and most abundant in body. Accounts for 60% of total body weight. • Only nutrient that is more important to athletes than to sedentary people. • Require minimum of 2.5 L per day • Controls body temperature, digestion, energy production, elimination of metabolic waste

    27. Regulator Nutrients • Electrolytes • Sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, & calcium are electrically charged ions dissolved in body water. • Maintain balance of water inside and outside the cell. (Maintain levels of hydration) • Electrolytes can be replaced by a well balanced diet.

    28. Nutrient Requirements & Recommendations • Nutrient Requirement - Amount of nutrient required to prevent deficiency diseases • Vary among individuals and across populations. Athletes require different amounts of nutrients. • Requirements and Recommendations • RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) changed to DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) • DRI – expanded concept that includes indicators of good health, prevention of chronic disease, as well as adverse effects of overcomsumption. • DRI includes RDA, tolerable upper intake levels (ULs), estimated average requirements (EAR), and adequate intake (AI)

    29. Food Labels Food labels aid the consumer in determining the level of nutrients in foods

    30. Calories • Calorie – unit of food energy • Refers the amount of heat that is released upon oxidation (use) by the body • Carbohydrates – 4 calories • Fats – 9 calories • Protein – 4 calories • Calories measure the capacity to do biological work

    31. How many calories would be in a meal that contained: • 12g fat • 22g carbohydrate • 3g protein

    32. 12g fat * 9cal = 108 • 22g carb * 4cal = 88 • 3g protein * 4cal = 12 • 108 + 88 + 12 = 208 calories • 208/108 = 52% • 208/88 = 42% • 208/12 = 6% • Does this meal fit into the daily % that we want to strive for?

    33. Supplements • Exercise and activity levels increase the need for energy, not necessarily the need for more vitamins and minerals. • Some mineral supplementation may be necessary for those that have allergies to dairy products or athletes that are vegetarians and are anemic. • Most deficiencies can be resolved with a proper diet.

    34. Body Composition & Weight Control • Body composition – the relationship between fat and lean body tissue • Body fat refers to the portion of weight that is fat tissue. • Lean body weight is composed of muscles, tendons, bones, and connective tissue

    35. Body Composition & Weight Control • Body fat percentages • Females 20-25% • % should never go below 12 • Males 12-15% • % should never go below 3

    36. Body Composition & Weight Control • Overweight - excess body weight relative to size and stature • Overfat - excessively high percentage of total body weight is fat • Obesity - extreme amount of excessive fat • Female >30% and male >20% percent body fat • One pound of fat is approximately 3,500 calories

    37. Assessing Body Composition • Skinfold • uses body calipers, measures the subcutaneous fat layer. Accuracy is relatively low, error of +/- 3-5% • Measure in 3 places or 6 • Males – chest, abdomen, thigh • Females – tricep, abdomen, thigh

    38. Assessing Body Composition • Hydrostatic – athlete is submerged in a tank of water, and composition is calculated based on the weight of the body in and out of the water. Highly accurate, but not readily available, and athlete may have fears. (must be under water and exhale all air)

    39. Assessing Body Composition • Bioelectrical impedance – electrical current flows through the body between two points. Fat is a poor conductor of electricity, while muscle is a good conductor. Measurement can be affected by level of hydration. Dehydration can cause the results to be higher

    40. Body Mass Index • Easy way to determine the extent of overweight or obesity, and measure the health risks associated with obesity. • Ratio of body weight to height • Calculation = Weight (kg) / Height squared (m) • BMI >25 indicate excess body fat • BMI 25-30 indicates overweight • BMI >30 indicates state of obesity

    41. Divide weight in lbs by 2.2 = weight in kg Height in inches * 2.54 = height in cm Divide height in cm by 100 = height in m Square height in m Formula: Weight (kg) / Height (m) squared BMI Calculation

    42. BMI Calculation • BMI calculation: ht 6’1, wt 217 • 217 / 2.2 = 98.6kg • 73in * 2.54 = 185.42cm • 185.42 / 100 = 1.85m • 1.85m squared = 3.42 • 98.6/3.42 = 28.83

    43. Caloric Balance • Caloric balance = # of calories consumed – number of calories expended • Positive caloric balance = weight gain • Negative caloric balance = weight loss • Normal caloric intake for a college athlete is 2,000-5,000 calories • Expenditure is 2,200-4,400 calories • Some endurance athletes may require 7,000 + calories a day

    44. Activity & Calorie Expenditure Calories per minute • Bed making – 3.9 • Sitting quietly – 1.7 • Shopping – 4.5 • Judo – 12 • Bowling – 3.2 • Cleaning – 4.2 • Typing – 1.8 • Tennis – 6 • Driving a car – 2 • Dancing - 6 • Archery – 2.8 • Basketball – 12 • Cooking – 3.5 • Eating – 1.7 • Jogging (8min/mile) - 12.6 • Running (6min/mile) – 16.2 • Sleeping – 1 • Soccer – 12 • Walking (17min/mile) – 5.4 • Jump rope (80turns/min) – 11.3 • Ping-pong – 5.6

    45. Caloric Balance • 3 ways calories can be burned. • Work • Basal metabolism (BMR – basal metabolic rate – amount of energy need by the body at rest) • Excretion

    46. Weight Management • Weight loss is most effective when diet and exercise are combined. • Exercise will also help improve flexibility, strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance. • For weight loss, caloric expenditure must be greater than the caloric intake. The key is moderation. • Any weight loss program should target to lose 1.5-2 pounds a week. • Two basic principles of a healthy diet: • Eat a variety of foods from each of the five food groups • Eat in moderation

    47. Eating Disorders • Range from mild abnormal behaviors to severe disorders • Incidence in athletics is higher than in the general population. • Many factors may play into eating disorders • Social, family issues, physiological, psychological

    48. Eating Disorders • Bulimia Nervosa • Generally identified in females ranging in age from adolescence to middle age • Periods of starvation then bingeing (thousands of calories) and purging through vomiting, fasting and laxatives/diuretics • Characteristics • Typically bulimic athletes are white, middle to upper-middle class • Perfectionist, obedient, over-compliant, highly motivated, successful academically, well-liked, and a good athlete • Gymnastics, track, dance, occasionally seen in male gymnasts and wrestlers • Consequences - stomach rupture, disruption of heart rhythm, liver damage, tooth decay from acids, chronically inflamed mucous lining of mouth and throat

    49. Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa • 30-50% of anorexics also suffer from bulimia • Characterized by distorted body image and constant concern about weight gain • Impacts mostly females • Starts often with adolescents • While the individual tends to be too thin they continue to feel fat • Deny hunger and are hyperactive • Highly secretive • 15-21% of individuals diagnosed with anorexia ultimately die from the disorder