Weight Management. Overview. • Height and weight • Obesity • Fat • Metabolism • Weight loss / gain • Spot reduction. Our country has a problem. Overweight. • Body weight that exceeds the norm based on height and frame size • Standard weights were established in 1959! By who?
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Overview • Height and weight • Obesity • Fat • Metabolism • Weight loss / gain • Spot reduction
Overweight • Body weight that exceeds the norm based on height and frame size • Standard weights were established in 1959! By who? • New standards in 1983 (not accepted . . . weights were too liberal) • What is wrong with these charts?
Obesity • Condition of having an excess amount of body fat • Men > ___% Women > ___% • 1960 ~ ___% obese • 2000 ~ ___% obese • ~ 65% of U.S. either overweight or obese
Obesity and health • ~ _________ deaths per year attributed to obesity • Hypertension _____ as common in the obese • Over _____ of the individuals with diabetes are overweight
Contributors to obesity • • • • •
Endocrine influence • “I am heavy because I have a slow metabolism” • Is an under active thyroid really the problem? • It is for about ___% of the obese population!
Obesity Upper body obesity • Male pattern (android) • Apple shaped Lower body obesity (gynoid) • Female pattern • Pear shaped
Weight gain per year • Average American gains ___ lb(s) a year after age 25
Review 1. What are the two factors used to determine BMI? 2. List two or three of the main contributors to obesity 3. Male pattern obesity is called?
Fat • Energy source at rest and during low intensity exercise • A well nourished adult meets 90% of resting energy needs from fat • Vital for normal bodily functions • Normal levels for males & females • Essential levels for males & females
Fat Cells • Overfatness can actually cause an increase in the # of fat cells (in children) • Excessively large fat cells can cause dimples under the skin - This is called _______________ • Is this a special kind of fat? • How do you get rid of it?
Metabolism Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) • Amount of energy (kcal) your body burns per day Estimate your BMR • •
Metabolism • Average adult BMR is about _____ kcal • Higher for males or females? Why? • Additional caloric requirements - Sedentary lifestyle _____ kcal/day - Hard physical labor _____ kcal/day
Fasting / crash dieting • Glycogen stored depleted • With every gram of carbohydrate used by the body ~ 2.5 grams of water is lost • So large/fast initial weight loss is usually mostly water! • Depleting your current glycogen stores = ~ 5 lb wt loss
Spot reduction • Is it possible? • Early research said yes • Subsequent research says no • Fat mobilization during exercise - Those areas of highest concentration? - Equally from all areas?
How many meals per day? Remember Dr. Mikat’s lecture All depends on total _______?
Think about it! • Average caloric intake ~ 2,500 kcals • ~ 1,000,000 calories per year • Wt gain of lb/year = an imbalance of only 3,500 kcals • Body can balance caloric intake to within ~ one potato chip per day of what is expended!!!!!
Energy expenditure • ___% = Resting metabolic rate (RMR) • ___% = Thermal effect of activity (TEA) • ___% = Thermal effect of a meal (TEM)
Recent study • Examined perceived and actual caloric intake • Subjects underestimated their calories consumed by ~ _____! • Subjects overestimated energy expenditure by ~ _____%! • Probably the two main reasons we are obese!
What about gaining weight? The few . . . the lucky . . . the few!!!!! What is the equation you MUST follow? • ?
Personal experience Me . . . freshman year of college • Entered college August 1988 @ 185 lbs • April 1989 (8 months) weighed 235 lbs What we did • Lifted heavy • Eat, eat, eat, eat, eat, eat, eat, eat, eat What about supplements?
What about you? Freshman gain on average _____ lbs? Culprits
Be diligent! Thanksgiving break (one study reported) Overweight students gained more than 2 lbs Normal weight students gained less than .5lb 2 months later Overweight students hadn’t lost the weight . . . normal weight students had
Review 1. What is cellulite? 2. How do we burn most of the calories that we burn on a daily basis? 3. What is the secret to gaining weight?
Take home message • If your goal is to lose weight . . . • Stop thinking in terms of dieting or being on a diet . . . • And start thinking in terms of healthy lifestyle choices!