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Sleep and Dreams Hypnosis Drugs Near Death Experience. States of Consciousness Myers Chapter 7. Forms of consciousness. Spontaneous- drowsiness, day dreaming Physiological- cravings or hallucinations Psychologically induced- hypnosis, Meditation. Biological Rhythms.

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Sleep and dreams hypnosis drugs near death experience

Sleep and Dreams



Near Death Experience

States of ConsciousnessMyers Chapter 7

Forms of consciousness
Forms of consciousness

  • Spontaneous- drowsiness, day dreaming

  • Physiological- cravings or hallucinations

  • Psychologically induced- hypnosis, Meditation

Biological rhythms
Biological Rhythms

  • Annual Cycles- hibernation, migration (SAD)

  • Menstrual Cycle- 28 days

  • 24 Hour Cycles- hormone secretion, body temp. and sleep/wake

  • Sleep- 90 minute cycles of various stages of sleep.

  • Circadian rhythm- biological clock- light in retina signals hypothalamus to alter the level of biochemical substances (MELATONIN)

Circadian rhythm and siesta
Circadian Rhythm and SIESTA!

  • Our body temperature drops in the afternoon- about 12 hours after the main period of sleep

  • Between 3 & 5 PM there are more accidents and less work productivity

  • Benefits of naps- increased performance (pilots)

  • The longer the nap, the better the benefit

Sleep stages
Sleep Stages

  • When awake we display Beta Waves

  • Measuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages.

  • Alpha & Theta Waves are displayed in stages 1 & 2

  • Delta Waves in stages 3 and 4 (slower)

Characteristics of the stages
Characteristics of the Stages

  • Stage 1 (20 minutes)- images resembling hallucinations- transition from awake to sleep

  • Stage 2- spindles- we are truly asleep- spend the most time here

  • Stage 3 & 4 (about 30 minutes)- most difficult to awaken

  • REM- about 10 minute durations- one hour into falling asleep AKA Paradoxical Sleep (internally aroused, but outwardly paralyzed)

Sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation

  • Depressed immune systems

  • Impaired concentration, communication and creativity

  • Increased irritability

  • Metabolic and hormonal function altering

Theories why we sleep
Theories: Why we sleep?

  • Protective role in human evolution

  • Brain needs it

  • Rebuilds memory

  • Growth hormone

Sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders:

  • 10 – 15% complain of insomnia (trouble getting to or staying asleep)

  • Narcolepsy- 1 in 2000 people- may lapse into REM sleep immediately at random times

  • Sleep Apnea- 1 in 20 people- temporary stop breathing and then awakening

  • Night Terrors- mostly children- during first few hours of stage 4 sleep (not nightmares)

  • Sleepwalking and talking- also more common in children during stage 4 because the stages lasts longer

What we dream
What We Dream:

Dreams- mostly about ordinary events

  • Negative Emotional Content:

  • Failure Dreams:

  • Sexual Dreams: Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30.

Why we dream
Why We Dream?

Though researchers disagree on WHY they agree on the need for REM sleep and the importance of the dreams

  • Wish Fulfillment: The dream’s manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings.

  • 2. Information Processing: Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories.

Why we dream1
Why we dream?

3. Physiological Function: Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways.

  • Activation-Synthesis Theory: Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity.

  • Cognitive Development: Some researchers argue that we dream as a part of brain maturation and cognitive development.

Rem rebound

  • So, What happens if a person is deprived of REM sleep?

  • Research shows that we enter the REM stage more quickly the more often we are awakened during the sleep cycles

Susceptibility to and aspects of hypnosis
Susceptibility to and Aspects of Hypnosis

  • Posthypnotic Suggestion: Suggestion carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized.

  • Posthypnotic Amnesia: Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis.

  • Those susceptible to hypnosis often have the ability to focus attention totally on a task and are highly imaginative

Is hypnosis an altered state of consciousness
Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness?

  • Social Influence Theory: Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role.

  • Divided ConsciousnessTheory: Hypnosis is a special state of dissociated (divided) consciousness (Hilgard, 1986, 1992).

Courtesy of News and Publications Service, Stanford University

(Hilgard, 1992)

Drugs and consciousness
Drugs and Consciousness

Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (effects consciousness).

  • Withdrawal:Upon stopping use of a drug (after addiction), users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal.

  • Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).

Influences on drug use
Influences on Drug Use

The use of drugs is based on biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences.

Depressants are drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
Depressants aredrugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

  • Alcohol- affects motor skills, judgment, and memory…and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness.

  • Barbiturates- depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are some examples.

  • Opiates- Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. They are highly addictive.

Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

  • Caffeine

  • Nicotine

  • Cocaine

  • Ecstasy

  • Amphetamines

  • Methamphetamines

Caffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy.


Amphetamines stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes, with devastating effects.

National Pictures/ Topham/ The Image Works


Ecstasy or Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory.

Greg Smith/ AP Photos


Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected.

Hallucinogens distort perceptions sensory images without input
Hallucinogens- Distort Perceptions- Sensory images without input

LSD:(lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful hallucinogenic drug (ergot fungus) that is also known as acid.

THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol):is the major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.

Mind body problem
Mind-Body Problem input

Near-death experiences raise the mind-body issue. Can the mind survive the dying body?

  • Dualism:Dualists believe that mind (non-physical) and body (physical) are two distinct entities that interact.

  • Monism:Monists believe that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.