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Chapter 6 States of Consciousness

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  1. Chapter 6 States of Consciousness

  2. Waking Consciousness • Consciousness • our awareness of ourselves and our environments • Selective Attention • focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

  3. Sleep and Dreams • Circadian Rhythm • the biological clock • regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature, that occur on a 24-hour cycle

  4. Sleep and Dreams • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep • recurring sleep stage • vivid dreams • “paradoxical sleep” • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active • Sleep • periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness

  5. Sleep and Dreams • Measuring sleep activity

  6. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages • Alpha Waves • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain • Delta Waves • large, slow waves of deep sleep • Hallucinations • false sensory experiences

  7. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages • Alpha Waves • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain

  8. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages • How would you control a computer with thought?

  9. ? Thought control of Devices

  10. ERP • Evoked response potential to unitary event

  11. Awake Sleep stages 1 2 3 REM 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hours of sleep Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep

  12. Minutes of Stage 4 and REM Decreasing Stage 4 25 20 15 Increasing REM 10 5 0 1 2 5 6 7 8 3 4 Hours of sleep Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep

  13. Sleep Deprivation • Effects of Sleep Loss • fatigue • impaired concentration • depressed immune system • greater vulnerability to accidents

  14. Accident frequency More sleep, fewer accidents Less sleep, more accidents 2,800 2,700 4,200 2,600 4000 2,500 3,800 2,400 3,600 Spring time change (hour sleep loss) Fall time change (hour sleep gained) Monday before time change Monday after time change Sleep Deprivation

  15. Sleep Disorders • Insomnia • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep • Narcolepsy • uncontrollable sleep attacks • Sleep Apnea • temporary cessation of breathing during sleep • momentary reawakenings

  16. Night Terrors and Nightmares • Night Terrors • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 • high arousal - appearance of being terrified • seldom remembered

  17. Dreams: Freud • Dreams • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind • hallucinatory imagery • discontinuities • incongruities • delusional acceptance of the content • difficulties remembering

  18. Dreams: Freud • Dreams

  19. Dreams: Freud • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) • wish fulfillment • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings • Manifest Content • remembered story line • Latent Content • underlying meaning

  20. Dreams • As Information Processing • helps facilitate memories • As a Physiological Function • periodic brain stimulation • CONSOLIDATION • REM Rebound • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation

  21. Sleep Across the Lifespan

  22. Hypnosis • Hypnosis • a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

  23. Hypnosis • Posthypnotic Amnesia • supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis • induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion • TEST OF REAL HYPNOSIS?

  24. Hypnosis • Orne & Evans (1965) • hypnotized group told to dip hand in fake acid, then throw the “acid” in assistant’s face • control group instructed to “pretend” • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones

  25. Hypnosis • Posthypnotic Suggestion • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized • used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

  26. Hypnosis • Dissociation • a split in consciousness • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others • Hidden Observer • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

  27. Explaining Hypnosis

  28. Drugs and Consciousness • Psychoactive Drug • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood • Physical Dependence • physiological need for a drug • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms • Psychological Dependence • a psychological need to use a drug • for example, to relieve negative emotions

  29. Big effect Response to first exposure Drug effect After repeated exposure, more drug is needed to produce same effect Little effect Large Small Drug dose Dependence and Addiction • Tolerance • diminishing effect with regular use • Withdrawal • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use

  30. Psychoactive Drugs • Depressants • drugs that reduce neural activity • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates • slow body functions

  31. Psychoactive Drugs • Alcohol • affects motor skills, judgment, and memory • reduces self awareness • Barbiturates • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

  32. Psychoactive Drugs • Opiates • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety • highly addictive

  33. Psychoactive Drugs • Stimulants • drugs that excite neural activity • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine • speed up body functions

  34. The Physiological Effects of Nicotine

  35. Psychoactive Drugs • Amphetamines • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

  36. Psychoactive Drugs • Cocaine • effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation • coca leaves • powder • crack

  37. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash

  38. Psychoactive Drugs • Ecstasy • MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) • stimulant and mild hallucinogen • dangerous short and long term effects

  39. Psychoactive Drugs • Hallucinogens • psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input • LSD • MDMA (Ecstasy)

  40. Psychoactive Drugs • LSD • lysergic acid diethylamide • a powerful hallucinogenic drug • also known as acid • THC • the major active ingredient in marijuana • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

  41. Psychoactive Drugs

  42. Trends in Drug Use

  43. Perceived Marijuana Risk

  44. Near-Death Experiences • Near-Death Experience • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations