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Chapter 6 States of Consciousness Waking Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments Selective Attention focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Sleep and Dreams Circadian Rhythm the biological clock

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slide1
Chapter 6

States of Consciousness

waking consciousness
Waking Consciousness
  • Consciousness
    • our awareness of ourselves and our environments
  • Selective Attention
    • focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
sleep and dreams
Sleep and Dreams
  • Circadian Rhythm
    • the biological clock
    • regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature, that occur on a 24-hour cycle
sleep and dreams4
Sleep and Dreams
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
    • recurring sleep stage
    • vivid dreams
    • “paradoxical sleep”
      • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
  • Sleep
    • periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
sleep and dreams5
Sleep and Dreams
  • Measuring sleep activity
brain waves and sleep stages
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Alpha Waves
    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
  • Delta Waves
    • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • Hallucinations
    • false sensory experiences
brain waves and sleep stages7
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Alpha Waves
    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
brain waves and sleep stages8
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • How would you control a computer with thought?
slide12
ERP
  • Evoked response potential to unitary event
stages in a typical night s sleep

Awake

Sleep

stages

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
stages in a typical night s sleep14

Minutes

of

Stage 4 and

REM

Decreasing

Stage 4

25

20

15

Increasing

REM

10

5

0

1

2

5

6

7

8

3

4

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Effects of Sleep Loss
    • fatigue
    • impaired concentration
    • depressed immune system
    • greater vulnerability to accidents
sleep deprivation16

Accident

frequency

More sleep,

fewer accidents

Less sleep,

more accidents

2,800

2,700

4,200

2,600

4000

2,500

3,800

2,400

3,600

Spring time change

(hour sleep loss)

Fall time change

(hour sleep gained)

Monday before time change

Monday after time change

Sleep Deprivation
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
    • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy
    • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • Sleep Apnea
    • temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
    • momentary reawakenings
night terrors and nightmares
Night Terrors and Nightmares
  • Night Terrors
    • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4
    • high arousal - appearance of being terrified
    • seldom remembered
dreams freud
Dreams: Freud
  • Dreams
    • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
    • hallucinatory imagery
    • discontinuities
    • incongruities
    • delusional acceptance of the content
    • difficulties remembering
dreams freud21
Dreams: Freud
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content
    • remembered story line
  • Latent Content
    • underlying meaning
dreams
Dreams
  • As Information Processing
    • helps facilitate memories
  • As a Physiological Function
    • periodic brain stimulation
    • CONSOLIDATION
  • REM Rebound
    • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
hypnosis
Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis
    • a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
hypnosis25
Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia
    • supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
    • induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
    • TEST OF REAL HYPNOSIS?
hypnosis26
Hypnosis
  • Orne & Evans (1965)
    • hypnotized group told to dip hand in fake acid, then throw the “acid” in assistant’s face
    • control group instructed to “pretend”
    • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones
hypnosis27
Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic Suggestion
    • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
    • used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
hypnosis28
Hypnosis
  • Dissociation
    • a split in consciousness
    • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
  • Hidden Observer
    • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
drugs and consciousness
Drugs and Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drug
    • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
  • Physical Dependence
    • physiological need for a drug
    • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
  • Psychological Dependence
    • a psychological need to use a drug
    • for example, to relieve negative emotions
dependence and addiction

Big

effect

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

Dependence and Addiction
  • Tolerance
    • diminishing effect with regular use
  • Withdrawal
    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Depressants
    • drugs that reduce neural activity
      • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
    • slow body functions
psychoactive drugs33
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Alcohol
    • affects motor skills, judgment, and memory
    • reduces self awareness
  • Barbiturates
    • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
psychoactive drugs34
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Opiates
    • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
    • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
    • highly addictive
psychoactive drugs35
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Stimulants
    • drugs that excite neural activity
      • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
    • speed up body functions
psychoactive drugs37
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Amphetamines
    • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
psychoactive drugs38
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Cocaine
    • effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation
      • coca leaves
      • powder
      • crack
psychoactive drugs40
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Ecstasy
    • MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)
    • stimulant and mild hallucinogen
    • dangerous short and long term effects
psychoactive drugs41
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Hallucinogens
    • psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
      • LSD
      • MDMA (Ecstasy)
psychoactive drugs42
Psychoactive Drugs
  • LSD
    • lysergic acid diethylamide
    • a powerful hallucinogenic drug
    • also known as acid
  • THC
    • the major active ingredient in marijuana
    • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
near death experiences
Near-Death Experiences
  • Near-Death Experience
    • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
    • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations