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Chapter 7: States of Consciousness. Warm UP. Check Grade Find new seats Get out Homework. Come up with a team answer for the following questions: Come up with 3 ways you can improve your 2 nd quarter grade. Define consciousness in your own words.

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warm up
Warm UP
  • Check Grade
  • Find new seats
  • Get out Homework

Come up with a team answer for the following questions: Come up with 3 ways you can improve your 2nd quarter grade.


Define consciousness in your own words.

  • Describe 3 situations in which consciousness would be impaired
  • Describe a situation in which consciousness would be heightened.
warm up1
Warm Up

1. What are tolerance, dependence, and addiction and what are some common misconceptions about addiction?

2.What are some depressants and what are their side effects?

3. What are some stimulants and what are their side effects?

4. What are hallucinogens and what are their effects?

5. What are some differences between physical and psychological withdrawal?


True or False. Horses, which spend 92% of each day standing and can sleep standing, must lie down for REM sleep


True or False. Rapid eye movement stirs the liquid behind the cornea. This delivers fresh oxygen to the cornea cells, so that they don’t die

warm up2
Warm Up

Pick up all 3 papers on the front table

Do sleep quiz

Check grade and write down hw

warm up3
Warm Up
  • Pick up Sleep Quiz and 2nd qt schedule on the overhead
  • Create a chapter 7 unit page
what is consciousness
What is Consciousness?
  • Consciousness has been defined by psychologists as our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
  • The awareness varies depending on our attention to the task at hand. Ex: driving.
consciousness and information processing
Consciousness and Information Processing
  • Consciousness describes what we are aware of but many things are processed outside of our “consciousness.”
  • Difficult or novel tasks require more conscious attention than well learned tasks.
  • Consciousness has a limited capacity
daydreams and fantasies
Daydreams and Fantasies
  • Almost everyone daydreams at one point or another.
  • Young adults tend to fantasize more than older adults, and admit to more sexual fantasies.
  • Although 95% of all people have sexual fantasies, men tend to fantasize more than women.
  • Fantasy-prone personality: someone who imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness and who spends considerable time fantasizing.
why might daydreaming be helpful and adaptive for humans
Why Might Daydreaming Be Helpful and Adaptive for Humans?
  • A way to escape
  • Prepare for future events
  • Aware of unfinished business
  • Increase creativity
  • Substitute for impulsive behavior
biological rhythms
Biological Rhythms
  • Biological Rhythms: periodic physiological fluctuations built into human beings.

Ex: 28 day menstrual cycle, 24 hour alertness cycle, annual cycle, 90 minute sleep cycles.

  • Circadian Rhythm: biological clock that regulates body rhythms on a 24 hour cycle….larks vs. owls.
is p m s a myth
Is P.M.S. A Myth?!?
  • “Premenstrual Syndrome:” feelings of increasing tension and stress that occur before onset of menstruation.
  • Human tendency to remember instances that confirm our beliefs.
  • Placebos work the same
  • Sadness, lethargic,irritability, headaches, insomnia
  • Sleep: refers to the periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness.
  • Using an EEG, sleep researchers have shown the mind is “awake” during various stages of sleep.
sleep stages stage 1
Sleep Stages: Stage 1
  • As we lay with our eyes closed we are in an awake but highly relaxed state characterized by alpha waves (slow waves) being emitted from our brain.
  • As we fall asleep, we have a 50% decrease in alpha wave activity…sometimes referred to as “drowsy sleep.”
  • During Stage 1 sleep, we often experience hallucinations: false sensory experiences. We may feel a sensation of falling or floating.

s econd stage s leep s pindles
Second Stage: Sleep Spindles
  • After about 5 minutes in stage 1 sleep, you sleep into Stage 2 sleep which is characterized by Sleep Spindles: bursts of rapid, rhythmic, brain wave activity.
  • Stage where you are clearly asleep, sleep talking can occur in this stage or any other later stage.
  • 20 minutes
stage t hree t ransition stage
Stage Three: Transition Stage
  • Stage Three begins your descent into “slow wave sleep.”
  • Delta Waves: (large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep) begin appearing in stage 3 but are increasingly apparent in Stage 4.
stage four delta waves
Stage Four: Delta Waves
  • Stage of deep sleep characterized by Delta Waves.
  • Stage when you are hard to awaken…but still aware of stimuli around you.
  • Stage at which children may wet the bed or sleep walk.
  • Also experience night terrors.
night terrors
Night Terrors
  • Occur during late stage 4 sleep and are characterized by high arousal and an appearance of terror but are seldom remembered.
r e m sleep paradoxical sleep
R.E.M. Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep)
  • After stage 4, your bodies cycles back to stage 3, stage 2, and into REM sleep.
  • A Normal Sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes.
r e m sleep paradoxical sleep1
R.E.M. Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep)
  • R.E.M.: rapid eye movement sleep, stage where vivid dreams occur. Known as Paradoxical because muscles are relaxed yet body is highly active.
  • Heart rate increases, Breathing more rapid, eyes dart behind lids.
  • Genitals become aroused during R.E.M. sleep even when dreams are not sexual in nature.
  • As sleep cycle continues, R.E.M. sleep gets longer and longer.
so why do we sleep
So Why Do We Sleep?
  • Most ppl will sleep for 9 hours if they could
  • Sleep debt
  • Decrease in work productivity
  • Increase in auto accidents
  • Suppressed immune system
  • Alter metabolic and hormonal functioning
  • Decrease in performance and creativity

sleep function
Sleep Function
  • Theories:
  • 1. Sleep protects
  • 2. Helps us recuperate
  • 3. Might help us grow
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia: inability to fall asleep or stay asleep.
  • 10-15 % of adults
  • Sleeping pills and alcohol might make it worse
    • Less REM sleep
sleep disorders1
Sleep Disorders
  • Narcolepsy: a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks often at inopportune times.
    • Usually 5 minutes
    • 1 in 2000 ppl
  • R.E.M. sleep occurs at wrong time. Very little N.R.E.M. sleep goes directly to R.E.M.
  • Cause- lack of neurotransmitter hypocretin
sleep disorders2
Sleep Disorders
  • Sleep Apnea: sleep disorder characterized by a temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary awakenings.
  • Often complained about as “snoring.”
  • Often interrupts deep sleep stages leaving person feeling exhausted.
tips for sleeping
Tips for Sleeping
  • Relax before bed
  • Avoid caffeine
  • A glass of milk
  • Regular cycle
  • Exercise regularly,but not in the late evening

Mary and Julie have been attending dance practice every morning from 6am to 8:30 am and are trying to learn a new routine to compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an example of how each of the following could affect their practice and their upcoming performance. Definitions without application do not score. 

1. Insomnia

2. Narcolepsy

3. Sleep Deprivation

4. Fantasy Prone Personality

5. Biological Rhythms

warm up get out hw and then answer the following question write question and answer
Warm Up – Get out HW and then answer the following question. Write question and answer
  • What is circadian rhythm?
  • Why do we need sleep?
  • List 2 things that happen in each of the following sleep stages:
    • Stage1
    • Stage 2
    • Stage 3
    • Stage 4
    • REM Sleep

4. What is the difference between Alpha and Delta waves?

5. What happens during REM sleep?

6. Why is REM sleep considered paradoxical sleep?

7. What is the difference between sleep apnea, insomnia and narcolepsy?

8. What is the difference between drug withdraw and drug tolerance?

9. List 2 Depressants. What do depressant do to the body

10. List 2 stimulants. What do stimulants do to the body

11. List 2 hallucinogens. What do hallucinogens do to the body

12. What do opiates do to your endorphin levels?

warm up brain pop
Warm Up- Brain Pop

Pick up warm up off of overhead

Get out hw

what s the meaning of dreams depends who you ask
What’s the Meaning Of Dreams? Depends Who You Ask!
  • Psychoanalytic Theorists like Freud will argue that dreams represent the royal road to the “unconscious.” Dreams represent unresolved wishes/desires and discharge feelings that would be unacceptable if consciously voiced.
  • Sigmund Freud- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content: represents remembered story line of a dream.
  • Latent Content: represents underlying meaning of dreams dealing with wishes and drives.
what s the meaning of dreams depends who you ask1
What’s The Meaning of Dreams? Depends Who You Ask?

As Information Processing

  • helps consolidate the day’s memories
  • Stimulates neural development
what s the meaning of dreams depends who you ask2
What’s The Meaning of Dreams? Depends Who You Ask?
  • Physiological Function of Dreams: periodic brain activity associated with R.E.M. sleep gives the brain needed activity to make neural connections. Also helps facilitate memory.
  • Activation-Synthesis Theory: dreams are result of brain’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity. Visual cortex among other areas like the Limbic System are active during R.E.M. sleep. Mind always tries to make sense of stimuli.
what s the meaning of dreams depends who you ask3
What’s The Meaning Of Dreams? Depends Who You Ask!
  • Dreams As Part of Cognitive Development: all mammals experience R.E.M. sleep and many researchers believe it helps facilitate cognitive development.
  • R.E.M. Rebound: tendency for R.E.M. sleep to increase following deprivation. May illustrate a biological need for it.
lucid dreams
Lucid Dreams
  • Lucid Dreams: are dreams in which you become aware that you are dreaming and you can control aspects of your environment in the dream.
what do we dream about
What do we dream about?
  • Sex- 1 in 30 for women;1 in 10 for men
  • Women dream about men and women; 65% of men's dreams are about men
  • Most dreams are about events in our daily lives
      • Previous day’s experiences
  • Forget things that happen 5 minute before we fall asleep
  • Do not remember taped info
have you ever dreamed of
Have you ever dreamed of…..?
  • Falling 83%
  • Being attacked 77%
  • School,teacher, studying 71%
  • Sexual experiences 66%
  • Arriving late 64%
  • Eating 62%
  • A loved person dying 57%
  • Being locked up 56%
have you ever dreamed of1
Have you ever dreamed of…..?
  • Finding money 56%
  • Swimming 52%
  • Snakes 49%
  • Being inappropriately dressed 46%
  • Unable to breathe 44%
  • Being nude 43%
  • Fire 41%
  • Failing an Exam 39%
  • Killing Someone 26%

Hypnosis- a social interaction in which one person ( the hypnotist) suggests to another ( the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will occur Hypnosis

Can anyone Experience Hypnosis?

  • It depends on the subject’s openness to suggestion

Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events?

  • Hypnosis does not help us recover “accurate memories as far back as birth”
  • Highly hypnotizable ppl are especially venerable to false memory suggestions

Can hypnosis force ppl to act against their will?

  • An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce ppl- hypnotized or not- to perform some unlikely acts
can hypnosis alleviate pain
Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain
  • YES
  • 10% of us can become so deeply hypnotized that even major surgery can be performed without anesthesia
  • Dissociation- a split between levels of consciousness.
      • Dissociate the sensation of the pain from the emotional suffering
  • Selective Attention
is hypnosis an altered state of consciousness
Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness

Hypnosis as a social phenomenon

  • Behaviors produced through hypnotic procedures can also be produced without them
  • PPl. do what is expected of them
is hypnosis an altered state of consciousness1
Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness

Hypnosis As A Divided Consciousness

  • Explains hypnosis not as a unique “trance state” where the “subconscious” is under control by the hypnotist but rather as a split in awareness caused by the “subjective experience of hypnosis.”
  • Hilgard’s Experiment
hilgard s hidden observer
Hidden Observer:describes hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.

Is a part of the person that has the experience.

Hilgard’s Hidden Observer
hypnosis concepts can hypnosis have an effect after the session
Hypnosis Concepts: Can Hypnosis Have an Effect After The Session?
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia: supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion. “You will no longer remember anything you experienced today.”
  • Posthypnotic Suggestion: a suggestion made during a hypnosis session that will be carried out after hypnosis session is over. “You will no longer feel the need to smoke after this session is over.”
Dualism: argues that the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact. The “mind” is nonphysical and can exist apart from the physical body.

Was put forth by many philosophers including Renee Descartes and Socrates.

monism materialism
Monism argues that the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.

Mind and body cannot be separated without bodies we are nobodies.

Thomas Hobbes along with many philosophers and scientists support this viewpoint.

Monism (Materialism)