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  1. Chapter 7: States of Consciousness

  2. 1. Consciousness is: • A) the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember. • B) the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. • C) the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information. • D) our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

  3. 2. Unlike the unconscious processing of information, conscious processing occurs: • A) simultaneously. • B) sequentially. • C) relatively quickly. • D) like running on auto pilot.

  4. 3. During the 60’s, the school of psychology that turned most psychologists away from studying the importance of consciousness was: • A) psychoanalysis. • B) functionalism. • C) behaviorism. • D) Gestalt psychology.

  5. 4. Altered states of consciousness are physiologically induced, like ___; and psychologically induced, like ___. • A) hallucinations; meditation • B) dreaming; hallucinations • C) sensory deprivation; orgasm • D) orgasm; oxygen deprivation

  6. An evolutionary explanation about why we sleep would be to: • A) repair our brain. • B) promote growth. • C) keep us safe. • D) help us to remember.

  7. 6. Biological processes that systematically vary over a period of 24 hours are called: • A) daily regimens. • B) circadian rhythms. • C) sleep-wake cycles. • D) lunar cycles.

  8. 7. A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness is: • A) serotonin. • B) melatonin. • C) L-triptophan. • D) dopamine.

  9. 8. The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called: • A) alpha waves. • B) paradoxical sleep. • C) sleep spindles. • D) delta waves.

  10. 9. Sleep deprivation has been shown to: • A) increase attentiveness to highly motivating tasks. • B) reduce hypertension. • C) enhance memory. • D) diminish immunity to disease.

  11. 10. Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia? • A) Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime. • B) Drink a glass of milk 15 minutes before bedtime. • C) Avoid taking short naps during the day. • D) Awaken at the same time every day even if you had a restless night.

  12. 11. People who are highly susceptible to hypnosis: • A) have a weak will. • B) have a great imagination. • C) have to want to be hypnotized. • D) have a short attention span.

  13. 12. In one study, both hypnotized and non-hypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a research assistant’s face. In this experiment, hypnotized people: • A) usually refused to do it. • B) behaved in the same fashion as non-hypnotized individuals. • C) were influenced to act against their own will. • D) experienced a heightened sense of personal responsibility for their actions.

  14. 13. Police Chief Olson is considering using a hypnotist to help an eye-witness recall the events of a crime. The Chief needs to know that: • A) hypnosis can help if the hypnotist is highly qualified. • B) there is an increased risk of false memories with hypnosis. • C) hypnosis can result in more forgetting. • D) hypnosis can only help if used along with a polygraph.

  15. 14. One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by: • A) distracting attention. • B) blocking sensory input. • C) eliciting a deep, REM-like state. • D) “fooling” the subject to believe there is no pain.

  16. 15. When hypnosis influences behavior after the hypnotic state, the subject was given a: • A) posthypnotic amnesia. • B) hypnotic command. • C) command suggestion. • D) posthypnotic suggestion.

  17. 16. Two factors involved in determining physical dependence are: • A) tolerance and withdrawal. • B) drug type and amount. • C) quantity and frequency. • D) psycho-activity and abuse.

  18. 17. The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of: • A) withdrawal. • B) dissociation. • C) resistance. • D) tolerance.

  19. 18. Repeated use of an opiate: • A) decreases the brain’s reproduction of endorphins. • B) increases heart and breathing rates. • C) does not seem to be followed by serious withdrawal symptoms. • D) triggers auditory as well as visual hallucinations.

  20. 19. The drug Ecstasy has the dangerous side-effect of: • A) causing dehydration, overheating, increased blood pressure, death. • B) increasing the risk of chronic depression. • C) impairing memory. • D) all of the above.

  21. 20. When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria. As someone comes off this “high”, the end result is a depressive crash caused by: • A) depletion of dopamine. • B) depletion of norepinephrine. • C) depletion of serotonin. • D) all of the above.

  22. 21. After ingesting a small dose of a drug, Jen experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. She most likely experienced the effects of: • A) cocaine. • B) LSD. • C) heroin. • D) marijuana.

  23. 22. Which of the following is an amphetamine that acts as a mild hallucinogen? • A) Marijuana • B) Nembutal • C) Ecstasy • D) LSD

  24. 23. According to Ernest Hilgard’s theory of hypnosis:. • A) becoming hypnotized depends on the willingness of the subject. • B) the subject’s consciousness is split. • C) everyone can become hypnotized if the hypnotist is trained. • D) it is just another form of concentration.

  25. 24: Near-death experiences are: • A) typically recalled as very scary and unpleasant. • B) quite similar to drug-induced hallucinogenic experiences. • C) recalled by nearly all who have been revived from cardiac arrest. • D) scientific proof that we all should “go to the light.”

  26. 25. The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that: • A) most dreams are psychologically meaningless. • B) the disruption of REM sleep leads to narcolepsy. • C) most mammals experience REM rebound. • D) sexual tension is naturally discharged during REM sleep.

  27. Answers Stop here, or continue as a review

  28. 1. Consciousness is: • A) the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember. • B) the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. • C) the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information. • D) our awareness of ourselves and our environment. 271

  29. 2. Unlike the unconscious processing of information, conscious processing occurs: • A) simultaneously. • B) sequentially. • C) relatively quickly. • D) like running on auto pilot. 272

  30. 3. During the 60’s, the school of psychology that turned most psychologists away from studying the importance of consciousness was: • A) psychoanalysis. • B) functionalism. • C) behaviorism. • D) Gestalt psychology. 271

  31. 4. Altered states of consciousness are physiologically induced, like ___; and psychologically induced, like ___. • A) hallucinations; meditation • B) dreaming; hallucinations • C) sensory deprivation; orgasm • D) orgasm; oxygen deprivation 272

  32. An evolutionary explanation about why we sleep would be to: • A) repair our brain. • B) promote growth. • C) keep us safe. • D) help us to remember. 282

  33. 6. Biological processes that systematically vary over a period of 24 hours are called: • A) daily regimens. • B) circadian rhythms. • C) sleep-wake cycles. • D) lunar cycles. 275

  34. 7. A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness is: • A) serotonin. • B) melatonin. • C) L-triptophan. • D) dopamine. 275

  35. 8. The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called: • A) alpha waves. • B) paradoxical sleep. • C) sleep spindles. • D) delta waves. 277

  36. 9. Sleep deprivation has been shown to: • A) increase attentiveness to highly motivating tasks. • B) reduce hypertension. • C) enhance memory. • D) diminish immunity to disease. 281

  37. 10. Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia? • A) Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime. • B) Drink a glass of milk 15 minutes before bedtime. • C) Avoid taking short naps during the day. • D) Awaken at the same time every day even if you had a restless night. 283

  38. 11. People who are highly susceptible to hypnosis: • A) have a weak will. • B) have a great imagination. • C) have to want to be hypnotized. • D) have a short attention span. 291

  39. 12. In one study, both hypnotized and non-hypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a research assistant’s face. In this experiment, hypnotized people: • A) usually refused to do it. • B) behaved in the same fashion as non-hypnotized individuals. • C) were influenced to act against their own will. • D) experienced a heightened sense of personal responsibility for their actions. 292

  40. 13. Police Chief Olson is considering using a hypnotist to help an eye-witness recall the events of a crime. The Chief needs to know that: • A) hypnosis can help if the hypnotist is highly qualified. • B) there is an increased risk of false memories with hypnosis. • C) hypnosis can result in more forgetting. • D) hypnosis can only help if used along with a polygraph. 292

  41. 14. One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by: • A) distracting attention. • B) blocking sensory input. • C) eliciting a deep, REM-like state. • D) “fooling” the subject to believe there is no pain. 293

  42. 15. When hypnosis influences behavior after the hypnotic state, the subject was given a: • A) posthypnotic amnesia. • B) hypnotic command. • C) command suggestion. • D) posthypnotic suggestion. 292

  43. 16. Two factors involved in determining physical dependence are: • A) tolerance and withdrawal. • B) drug type and amount. • C) quantity and frequency. • D) psycho-activity and abuse. 297

  44. 17. The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of: • A) withdrawal. • B) dissociation. • C) resistance. • D) tolerance. 297

  45. 18. Repeated use of an opiate: • A) decreases the brain’s reproduction of endorphins. • B) increases heart and breathing rates. • C) does not seem to be followed by serious withdrawal symptoms. • D) triggers auditory as well as visual hallucinations. 300

  46. 19. The drug Ecstasy has the dangerous side-effect of: • A) causing dehydration, overheating, increased blood pressure, death. • B) increasing the risk of chronic depression. • C) impairing memory. • D) all of the above. 302

  47. 20. When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria. As someone comes off this “high”, the end result is a depressive crash caused by: • A) depletion of dopamine. • B) depletion of norepinephrine. • C) depletion of serotonin. • D) all of the above. 301

  48. 21. After ingesting a small dose of a drug, Jen experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. She most likely experienced the effects of: • A) cocaine. • B) LSD. • C) heroin. • D) marijuana. 302

  49. 22. Which of the following is an amphetamine that acts as a mild hallucinogen? • A) Marijuana • B) Nembutal • C) Ecstasy • D) LSD 302

  50. 23. According to Ernest Hilgard’s theory of hypnosis:. • A) becoming hypnotized depends on the willingness of the subject. • B) the subject’s consciousness is split. • C) everyone can become hypnotized if the hypnotist is trained. • D) it is just another form of concentration. 294