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Manure Concentration of N:P, Animal Performance, and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations of Feedlot Steers Phase Fed Different Levels of Protein. L.W. Greene 1, 2 and J. T. Vasconcelos 1,3. 1 Texas Agricultural Experiment Station - Amarillo 2 West Texas A&M University, Canyon

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slide1

Manure Concentration of N:P, Animal Performance, and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations of Feedlot Steers Phase Fed Different Levels of Protein.

L.W. Greene1, 2 and J. T. Vasconcelos1,3

1Texas Agricultural Experiment Station - Amarillo2West Texas A&M University, Canyon

3Texas A&M University

slide2

Introduction

  • Cattle are started on high concentrate finish diets at approximately 750 lbs and fed to an average weight of 1250 lbs.
  • Early in the feeding period, cattle have a greater deposition of lean tissue and less deposition of fat compared to later in the feeding period.
  • As animals mature through the feeding period, the composition of gain changes -- protein gain decreases and fat gain increases in relative proportion.
slide3

Introduction

  • The typical feedlot diet in the Southern Plains contains 13.0 to 13.5% Crude Protein (% N X 6.25)
slide4

Average excess = 50 g/d

Crude protein excess or deficiency (g/d) during feeding period given a typical diet (adapted from Galyean)

Days on Feed

Days on Feed

slide6

Introduction

  • The typical feedlot diet in the Southern Plains contains approximately 0.33% P
  • The typical feedlot steer requirement for P is likely < 0.18%.
slide7

Average excess 6.7 g/d

Phosphorus excess or deficiency (g/d) during feeding period given a typical diet (adapted from Galyean)

Days on Feed

slide9

Introduction

Source

Crude Protein, %

Phosphorus, %

Corn grain

9.8

0.31

Corn silage

9.0

0.27

Sorghum silage

11.0

0.25

Alfalfa hay

22.0

0.30

Cottonseed meal

46.0

0.93

Dried distillers grains

28.0

0.90+

  • The typical feedlot diet does not contain supplemented P.
  • The dietary P is supplied from the dietary ingredients.
objective
Objective
  • Determine the effects of phase-feeding of protein in finishing steers on
    • Steer performance
    • Blood urea nitrogen concentration
    • Manure N concentration
    • Manure P concentration
    • Carcass characteristics
methods
Methods

One hundred eighty four steers

Randomized block design

(blocked by weight into heavy medium and light and by start date)

54 steers started on June 6, 2003

130 steers started on June 17, 2003

Steers were housed in 21 pens (7 pens/treatment)

slide12

Methods

Three dietary treatments

1. Control diet – 13% Crude protein diet fed continually throughout the feeding period

2. 11.5% Crude protein – 13% Crude protein diet fed until cattle the average of the block reached 477 kg, then switched to an 11.5% crude protein diet

3. 10.0% Crude protein – 13% Crude protein diet fed until cattle the average of the block reached 477 kg, then switched to no supplemental crude protein diet

slide13

Methods

The supplemental protein was supplied from equal amounts of nitrogen from urea and cottonseed meal

slide14

Methods

Ingredient composition of finishing diets (DM basis)

slide15

Methods

Analyzed chemical composition of finishing diets.

slide16

Average Daily Gain

P-value =0.912

Beginning until diet change

kg/d

slide17

Average Daily Gain

P-value =0.213

Diet change until finish

kg/d

slide18

Average Daily Gain

P-value =0.094

Beginning until finish

kg/d

slide19

Dry matter intake

P-value =0.619

Beginning until diet change

kg/d

slide20

Dry matter intake

P-value =0.008

Diet change until finish

kg/d

slide21

Dry matter intake

P-value =0.056

Beginning until finish

kg/d

slide22

Gain efficiency

P-value =0.832

Beginning until diet change

Kg gain/

Kg intake

slide23

Gain efficiency

P-value =0.294

Diet change until finish

Kg gain/

Kg intake

slide24

Gain efficiency

P-value =0.094

Beginning until finish

Kg gain/

Kg intake

slide25

Plasma Urea Nitrogen (mg/dL)

P-value =0.8100

P-value =0.0001

P-value =0.8280

Day 0

Diet change

Harvest

slide26

Pen surface manure concentration

P-value =0.600

Nitrogen

%

slide27

Pen surface manure concentration

P-value =0.931

Ammonia Nitrogen

%

slide28

Pen surface manure concentration

P-value =0.549

Organic Nitrogen

%

slide29

Pen surface manure concentration

P-value =0.642

Phosphorus

%

slide30

Pen surface manure concentration

P-value =0.038

Nitrogen:Phosphorus

slide31

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.227

Fat thickness, cm

slide32

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.192

Longissimus area, cm2

slide33

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.459

Kidney, Pelvic and Heart Fat, %

slide34

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.663

Hot carcass wt, kg

slide35

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.763

Live weight, kg

slide36

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.874

Dressing percentage, %

slide37

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.173

Marbling score

slide38

Carcass Characteristics

P-value =0.174

Yield grade

summary
Summary
  • Variation of crude protein in the experimental diet resulted in lower than expected crude protein intake.
  • Reducing crude protein intake to 8.3% reduced feed intake and tended to reduce ADG when summarized across the entire feeding period.
  • No differences were detected in manure nutrient concentrations but the N:P ratio was increased when the lower CP diet was fed.
  • No differences were detected in USDA Carcass Characteristics.