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1914-Present

1914-Present

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1914-Present

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  1. 1914-Present

  2. World War I • Alliances • Western/Eastern Fronts • Technology • Homefront: Propaganda, shortages, rationing • Colonial involvement • Treaty of Versailles • League of Nations

  3. Consequences of World War I • Increased nationalism in colonized areas • Genocide in Armenia • India: independence movement strengthened, Gandhi • Middle East: broken promises, League Mandates, Balfour Declaration

  4. The West in the 1920s • Optimism for an end to war: Locarno Pact, Kellogg-Briand Pact • Prosperity • New artistic and cultural directions

  5. Fascism • Extreme nationalism/racism • Militarism • Extreme right wing (support of traditional values) • Totalitarian government • Italy, 1923, Benito Mussolini • Japan, 1920s: Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

  6. Mexican Revolution • 1910 Diaz vs Madero • 1914 US intervention in Veracruz • Rise of Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) 1917 Revolution ends • New focus on Native American culture as well as European culture in Mexico

  7. Russian Revolution(s) • February Revolution (March 1917) Nicholas II abdicated, Alexander Kerensky took power, Russia a liberal democracy • Kerensky promised to continue war • Lenin and Bolsheviks returned to Russia with German assistance

  8. October Revolution (November 1917) Lenin and Bolsheviks seized power • Peace with Germany (nearly caused German victory) • War communism • New Economic Policy • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) established 1922

  9. Joseph Stalin seized power after Lenin’s death. • Leon Trotsky exiled, murdered • Collectivization, Five Year Plans • Totalitarian government • Industrialization, militarization

  10. China • Republic established 1911 under Sun Yat-sen • 1919 May Fourth Movement called for westernization, abandonment of Confucianism • 1920s, Civil War Guomindang (Nationalists, Chiang Kai-shek) versus Communists (Mao Zedong)

  11. Maoism: Peasants are vanguard of the Revolution • Long March: Communists retreat in defeat • 1935: Japanese invasion of China • Guomindang/Communist alliance to fight Japanese

  12. Great Depression • Began in United States • Soviet Union’s isolated economy little affected • Governments took more power over economies to try to end Depression: New Deal in US, Labour Party in Britain, Popular Front in France, democratic socialism

  13. Rise of Nazism • German anger over Treaty of Versailles • Rise of Adolf Hitler • Third Reich 1933 • Anti-Semitism leading to Final Solution (Holocaust) genocide • Remilitarization of Germany • 1936-38 Spanish Civil War

  14. World War II • 1931, Japanese invasion of Manchuria • 1939, invasion of Poland • Blitzkrieg (technology) • Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt • Allies versus Axis • World wide conflict • Nuclear weapons, 1945

  15. Decolonization 1945-1980 • Colonized areas demanded independence (nationalism) West too weak to maintain empires • British Empire became Commonwealth of Nations • French resisted loss of empire: Algeria, Vietnam

  16. India: 1947 independent, partitioned • Kashmir controversy • Africa: quick independence for non-settler colonies (Ghana) Slower process for settler colonies (Kenya) • South Africa: apartheid regime until 1994. Nelson Mandela first African president

  17. “Big Man” syndrome: Zimbabwe, Uganda • Colonial frontiers created artificial nations: Rwanda (genocide 1994) • Middle East: 1948 Israel. Palestinian question. • Arab Israeli wars: 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973. • Intifada (Palestinian uprising) • Muslim nationalism

  18. Cold War • Eastern European satellite nations • Winston Churchill: Iron Curtain speech • 1948 Berlin Blockade • 1949: Year of Shocks: Soviet atom bomb, China became Communist, formation of NATO • Soviets created Warsaw Pact to balance NATO

  19. Nuclear arms race: mutual assured destruction • 1956 Suez Crisis • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis • 1970s détente • 1980s Cold War freezes over, Soviet collapse 1991

  20. The West since World War II • Liberal democracies and welfare states • Economic growth • Abstract, creative art and literature, growth of secularism (Europe, not US) • Civil Rights, Women’s Rights • Energy Crisis

  21. Soviet Union and Eastern Europe since World War II • Eastern European satellites (not Yugoslavia) • Stalinism: totalitarian government, command economy, collectivization, militarism • Socialist realism the official artistic style • Emphasis on heavy industry, Five Year Plans. Consumer shortages • Stalin died 1953

  22. 1956 Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalinism. • Cold War: Suez, Missile Crisis • Khrushchev overthrown 1964. Leonid Brezhnev took power. • 1960s-1970s: economic stagnation, detente

  23. Latin America • Dependent economies (US) • US policies promoted intervention in Latin America: Big Stick Diplomacy, Dollar Diplomacy • 1930s Good Neighbor Policy • 1960s Alliance for Progress

  24. Banana Republics: unstable countries with military dictatorships, one crop economies • US intervention in Guatemala 1952, Chile 1973 • Cuban Revolution 1959: Fidel Castro, Che Guevara

  25. Latin America from the 1980s to the present • Movement away from military rule to democratically elected governments • Disappointment over slow economic growth, globalization led to left-ward movement in 1990s, 2000s • Liberation Theology • Hugo Chavez (Venezuela)

  26. Problems of Decolonization and Newly Independent Nations • Overpopulation: parasite cities, ecological damage • Neocolonialism: continued dependence on former mother countries (Latin American dependence on US) • Continued subordination of women • Nationalism (Muslim, etc.)

  27. Charismatic leadership (personality cults): Big Man: Nkrumah, Idi Amin • Artificial countries: colonial frontiers putting traditional enemies in the same nation: Nigeria, Rwanda

  28. Muslim Nationalism • Israeli-Palestinian conflict • Egypt: Gamal Abdel Nasser • Iran: 1979 Revolution against Shah, westernization.

  29. Pacific Rim • Japan: Allied Occupation 1945-1955 brought new period of cultural copying • Economic recovery (zaibatsus) • Liberal democracy • Article 9 • Nuclear allergy

  30. Korea • Division after World War II, Korean War 1950-1953 • North Korea: Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il. Personality cult, paranoia, secretiveness • South Korea: Authoritarianism, economic recovery based on corporations.(Korean miracle) 2000s: democratization under Kim Dae Jung

  31. Taiwan and Singapore • 1949 Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek • Authoritarian, economic growth • Democratization in 2000s • Singapore: 1965 independent city state under Lee Kuan Yew • Authoritarian, banking and trade

  32. People’s Republic of China War between Guomindang and Communists resumed after 1945 Communists supported by peasants, Guomindang by cities 1949, Guomindang withdrew to Taiwan, People’s Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Zedong

  33. 1958 Great Leap Forward, rapid industrialization in rural areas: failure • 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution: attempt to destroy anti-Communist and anti-revolutionary elements • Mao died 1976. Pragmatic rulers since. Capitalist economy, totalitarian state

  34. Vietnam • French colony before World War II • Ho Chi Minh, Marxist, leader of liberation struggle against French • 1954, French withdrew after Battle of Dien Bien Phu. US involvement began (Cold War) to support South Vietnam against Communists • 1965-1975 US intervention, ended when South Vietnam collapsed

  35. End of the Cold War • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev leader of Soviet Union • Glasnost and Perestroika • 1989 Eastern Europe broke away from Soviet control • 1991 Soviet Union collapsed, replaced by Commonwealth of Independent States

  36. Most former Soviet republics now authoritarian/totalitarian states

  37. Globalization • McWorld • Coca-colonization • Arguments for and against globalization