Stearns – 1914-present – Contemporary Period. Serious attention needed on this 3 chunks: 1. WWI/interwar/WWII 2. Cold War 3. 1989-present. 1945 to present most important. Theme 1 – Decline of West. From WWI on West declines (WWI is civil war of West) Symptoms:
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Serious attention needed on this
2. Cold War
From WWI on West declines (WWI is civil war of West)
Demographic - West’s share of world population drops – everywhere else is growing.
West becomes elderly.
Political power of West declines.
Decolonization from 1920 on.
West’s relative military power declines (exception – air power).
Guerilla warfare (i.e.. Vietnam).
Large number of states get enough military to defend themselves – make it tougher for the West. Ie. Decolonization, $ to buy guns, capitalists will sell to anyone.
As West declines, cultural impact of West goes up.
W. power not as menacing.
W. exports “cool stuff.”
Japan does as well.
Economy being re-defined once again.
W. still have dominant economies exporting finished goods, but the Pacific Rim countries now are in the mix.
Parts of Latin America
India, China, Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, some M.E. countries (Turkey, Iran), Australia, Canada.
Use of a valuable/special resource to make $ (i.e.. Oil)
Play both sides of the Cold War.
“Import substitutes” – make clothes and cars at home (Turkey, India).
5. Develop new kind of export – i.e.. Brazil – 4th largest computer exporter, excellent steel. India – software. Chile – veggies, wine, fruit.
Women gain in education globally – great variety.
-- Re-definition of patriarchy? In a real patriarchal society, women would not be able to vote.
2. Falling birthrates.
3. New technologies – airplanes, radios, satellites, internet.
4. Attempt by everyone to teach more people.
5. 300% population increase – largest in the history of the world.
6. Rise of nation states.
7. No clear pattern of cultural change:
-- Revival of Islamic, Hindu, and Buddhist fundamentalism.
-- Divisions within society – secular and religious.
China – Neo-Buddhist or Neo-Communist
India – Neo-Communist or Congress Party secular.
Africa – Christian / Muslim tensions/conversions.
Who were the social classes that rules change?
In 1900 – Landowners
In 2000 – Big business owners
Fewer peasants, more urban workers.
People moving / migrating.
China re-enters in 1978
Russia re-enters in 1985
Globalization – what does it mean?
Multinational groups dependent upon each other.
Massive opportunities for cultural exchange.
International political organizations – i.e.. WHO limiting SARS.
Globalization of democracy – to Latin America, Southern Europe, Africa, Middle East?
Resistance (terrorism, anti-world groups).
First round of globalization did not work – will this one?