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1914-Present Day

1914-Present Day

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1914-Present Day

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  1. 1914-Present Day By: Matt, Mason, and Drew

  2. World War I • Began in 1914 • Causes: • Nationalism • Imperialism • Militarism • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian, Gavrilo Princip

  3. WWI Con. • Alliances at the Beginning • Triple Entente • Great Britain • France • Russia • Triple Alliance • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Italy

  4. WWI Con. • Start of the war • Powder Keg(Balkans) • Russia and Austria-Hungary wanted to take control of the Balkans • Ultimatum • After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria presented Serbia with a harsh ultimatum, that Serbia agreed to only some of the terms • Austria was in no need to cooperate, this lead to war between Serbia and Austria on 28th of July 1914 • Russia backed up its ally, Serbia, by mobilizing troops along both the German and Austria borders on the same day

  5. WWI Con. • SchlieffenPlan • Created by Alfred Graf von Schlieffen • If a two front war broke out the plan stated that they would attack France then Russia • Speed was vital!!!!!!!! • The first Battle of the Marne showed that this plan would not work

  6. WWI Con. • Mid-August 1914 • Central Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulguria • Allies • Great Britain • France • Serbia • Russia • Japan • Italy

  7. WWI Con. • Battle Tactics • Weapons • Machine guns • Poison Gas • Tanks • Airplanes • Submarine(U-Boats) • Torpedo • Trench Warfare • Created Stalemates • The new weapons helped create such stalemates

  8. Fronts • Eastern Front • German and Russian Border • Russians & Serbs VS Germans, Austrians, & Turks • In 1917, Russian peasant went into a revolution causing Russia to leave the war and sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Western Front • With Russia leaving the war, Germany focused its attack on the Western Front against France, England and later the United States • July 1918, Germany and the Allies fought at the Second Battle of the Marne. After the defeat of the Germans, the Allies could now push toward the rest of German and the Central Powers

  9. Treaty of Versailles • Kaiser Wilhelm II resigned from office and a representative of new German government signed an armistice with Ferdinand Foch • Paris Peace Conference • The Big Four met at The Palace of Versailles. Russia and Germany were not involved • Woodrow Wilson-America • Georges Clemenceau- France • David Lloyd George- Britain • Victorio Orland- Italy • Fourteen points- Woodrow Wilsons I dea

  10. Russian Revolution • Tsar Alexander II • Moderate leader • Emancipation of serfs in 1851 • Lightened censorship • Assassinated by radical terrorists in 1881 • Czars that were to follow were conservative and abandoned much of his reforms • Alexander III • Followed his father Alexander II • Imposed strict censorship • Had the secret police monitor schools • Oppressed national groups in Russia • Persecuted Jews

  11. Czar Nicholas II • Became czar in 1894 • Power hungry • Russia was behind compared to Western Europe • Sergi Witte( Czar’s minister) launched reforms, raises taxes, and increased foreign investment to aid industrial economy( especially steel) • Trans-Siberian Railway completed in 1904 • Worker become unhappy with low standard of living and lack of political power

  12. Czar Nicholas II Con. • Revolutionary movements begin to grow • Follow Karl Marx’s ideas • Believed that the working class or proletariat could be able to overthrow czar • 1903 Marxist split into two groups: • Mensheviks : wanted broad base of support for revolution • Bolsheviks: small group committed to sacrifice everything for radical change ; Vladimir IlyichUlyanov( Lenin) was a major leader

  13. Russian Revolution Begins • Bloody Sunday • January 22, 1905 two thousand workers go to the czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg • They wanted better working conditions and more personal freedom • Soldiers fired in the crowd • Czar Nicholas created Duma but later removed • March Revolution of 1917 • Women textile workers led a strike and riots soon broke out over bread and fuel shortages • Soldiers obeyed and shot at rioters but they later supported rioters and shot at commanding officers • This force the czar to abdicate his throne • Nicholas and his family was executed

  14. Bolshevik Revolution • Bolshevik Revolution • November 1917 Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace • Took over government and arrested provisional government • Bolsheviks revolution was over in hours • Lenin gave farmland to peasants and gave control of factory to workers • 1918-1920 • Red and Whites fight a civil war; Reds win • Communist Cheka forms • Cheka is a secret police that removes people that were thought to go against revolutionaries

  15. Economy • Lenin put aside plan for state controlled economy temporarily • Restored a small-scale version of capitalism • Encouraged foreign investment • Formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics(USSR)-to honor the people who helped launch the Bolshevik Revolution

  16. Nationalist VS Qing Dynasty • Sun Yixian was first leader and became president of the Republic of China • Lacked authority and military support • Sun turned presidency to Yuan Shikai • In 1913 began running a military dictatorship, which caused military revolt to emerge • Civil war broke out and warlords terrorized • Peasant suffered the most and famine killed millions

  17. May Fourth Movement • May 4, 1919, over 3,000 students gathered in Beijing • Supported by Mao Zedong • National movement occurs that showed that the Chinese were committed to creating a strong, modern nation • Chinese intellects turn in favor of Communism

  18. Chinese Revolution • Communist Party • Mao Zedong and a groups of other founded the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 • Viewed Soviet Union as a model for political and economic change • Communists and Nationalist became allies and fought against the warlords-successfully • Nationalism VS Communism • After they battled the warlords together, Jiang Jieshi(or Chiang Kai-shek) turned against Communists • Nationalist almost wiped out communist • 1928 Jiang became president of nationalist Republic of China

  19. Peasants • Peasant became upset because Jiang did nothing to give the political rights or a democracy-even though he had promised • Peasants began to support Chinese Communist Party

  20. Civil War • 1930 civil war broke out between Nationalist and communists • The Long March occurred in 1934 when the Communist Party realized that they were going to be defeated by Jiang’s army and they fled on a 6,000 mile journey • Nationalist chased communist but failed to catch them • Chase lasted a more than a year and about 10,000-30,000 reached safety in Northwestern China-100,000 began the journey

  21. Japan Invades • Japan also invaded China during this war between Nationalist and Communists • Invaded Manchuria-an industrial province • Marked the start of World War II in Asia • 1937 the Japanese led a full invasion against China • Bombed villages and killed thousands • Nationalist and Communists united temporarily to fight the Japanese

  22. Indian Revolution • Nationalism has growing in India since the 1800s • Indian National Congress and The Muslim League want to get rid of foreign rule • Enlisted to help in World War I because Britain promised reforms, but treated as second class citizens • Mohandas K. Gandhi promoted noncooperation with the British

  23. Satyagraha • In 1920 the Congress Party supported nonviolence and civil disobedience to gain independence • Refused to buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes, vote in elections, and most importantly boycotted British cotton, a source of wealth for the British

  24. The Salt March • In 1930, Gandhi led a march to the seacoast to gather water and let it evaporate to get their salt • Protest against the laws and taxes from the British on salt • In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India • Provided local self-government and limited democratic elections • This act also started the tensions between the Muslims and Hindus

  25. World War II • Germany is punished for the war • Restricted military, lost territory, state in economic despair • 1924 US loans Germany money through the Dawes Plan • Totalitarianism is on the rise • Facism-Mussolini • Nazism-Hitler • Militarism- Hirohito • Communism-Stalin

  26. Adolf Hitler • Born in Austria in 1889 • Emerged as an extreme nationalists • 1932 the Nazi were the largest party • Asked to be Chancellor • Hitler combines chancellor and president positions-declares himself leader • Started the Anti-Semitic policies

  27. The Beginning • Important moves • When the Spanish Civil War ended in 1939 Spain, Italy, and Germany form the Rome Berlin Axis • United States continues to be isolationists • Japan signs the Rome Berlin Tokyo Axis in 1936 • Hitler re-arms Germany in 1936 and conqueror the Rhineland then moves to the Sudetenland • Munich Conference • 1938 Hitler and Chamberlain meet in Munich • Germany was given the Sudetenland since he promised no other expansions plans for Germany • APEASEMENT • Roosevelt urged Chamberlain and Hitler to have a peaceful solution • 1939 Germany invades Czechoslovakia and made plans to invade Poland

  28. Stalin and Hitler • Stalin and Hitler form the Nazi-Soviet pact on August 23, 1939 • Hitler needed assurance that the Soviet Union would not interfere with the invasion of Poland • This cemented Hitler’s plans to invaded Poland

  29. World War II Begins • September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland • Britain and France declare war on Germany because of their promise to Poland • Roosevelt asks Congress to lift Neutrality Acts • Congress passes the Cash Carry Legislation • France fell under Nazi control, causing isolationist feelings to decline • December 17, 1940 Roosevelt proposes Lend-Lease Act

  30. Unites State Enters • Two American ships were sunk by German U-boats(1941) • 100 American died • Japan continues to expand in China • Told US that they would withdraw troops from Indochina if they resumed economic relations • December 7, 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor • US declares war on Japan and a few day later the Axis Powers declare war in the US

  31. War in Europe • United States not prepared for war until November 1942 • Where to attack next??? • Stalin favored a second front in Europe, FDR wanted an invasion of France, while Churchill want an attack on the Periphery • In the end the Allies opened an attack on the North Africa to aid the British in protecting the Suez canal • This gave the new America Soldiers experience • Allies able to force Nazi’s out in 1943

  32. The Next Move • The Casablanca Conference was the deciding point for the next attack • Here the Allies agreed to Attack Sicily, which Churchill called the Soft Under Belly of Europe and set up the Strategic Bombing of Germany • On July 10, 1943 the allies invaded Sicily with Eisenhower in overall command while Patton and Montgomery took control of the ground troops • Patton secured the Western half of the island as the British secured the South • By August the Germans had left the island, and the loss at Sicily caused the Italians to surrender • First use of American Paratroopers! • The German tried to halt the allies advance in Cassino but in the battle of Anzio, the allies were able to break German lines and began to take the rest of the Italian peninsula.

  33. Turning Points • Stalingrad- In 1942 Hitler attacked Stalingrad during the Winter(Russia’s biggest ally) • He wanted to get rid of the Soviets and secure the oilfields around the Caspian Sea. • This did not work out, and after this battle Germany was left to play defense the rest of the war • Operation Overlord(D-Day)!!! • Hitler tried to fortify the coast of France, this became know as the Atlantic Wall • General Eisenhower was made the Supreme Commander Allied Europe Forces(SCAEF) • Paratroopers were dropped behind enemy lines to cut off German supply routes while the rest of the armies fought on the beach heads(Over 200,000 troups) • After the Germans were left in a retreat position

  34. The Race • After Normandy and Stalingrad, it was a race to Berlin for the Allies • With the allies pushing closer and closer to the Heart of the Reich, the German were only able to mount one counter attack, the Battle of the Bulge. • On April 30th 1945, Germany surrendered. This is called V.E(Victory in Europe) but the Pacific was still in action

  35. War in the Pacific • From 1931-1941, Japan builds an empire by conquering Asian lands • Dec 7th 1941- Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. This brought the US into the war • April 1942- In the Philippines the Allies surrender, and the Bataan Death march begins. POWs were treated terribly. • June 1942-Turning Point-The Battle of Midway where the allies destroyed most of the Japanese fleet • Feb 1943- Bad losses on both sides. The Japanese abandon the island of Guadalcanal. • March 1945- Battle of Iwo Jima. Both sides take a heavy toll • June 1945- Battle of Okinawa. Again horrible loses. After many countless losses, Truman decided it would be better to us nuclear weapons • August 1945- The atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States

  36. Atomic Bombs • Little Boy • Dropped on Hiroshima on the 6th of August • Killed between 130,000 and 150,000 • Level Hiroshima to the ground • Exploded with the force of 12,000 tons of TNT. The center of the explosion was over 50 million degrees Fahrenheit • Fat Man • Dropped on Nagasaki on the 9th of August • Death estimated to be 73,884, and Injuries estimated 74,909 • Effects • Between 210,000 and 250,000 deaths • Japan surrenders September 1945

  37. Aftermath in Europe • Europe was in ruins • Paris, Rome, and Brussels were the major cities left undamaged • People lived in destroyed buildings and some left to find lost family member, sometimes finding themselves in the wrong country after new borders were made • Communist Party on the Rise • The Communist party promised to change • With the economic state at a low level, Communist appealed to the people and Communist party membership went way up • Nuremberg Trails • To prevent the Holocaust, the Nazi’s were put on trail • In 1946, 23 countries tried 22 Nazis for war crimes • Hitler, SS Chief Heinrich Himmler and Joseph Goebbels, the Ministry of Propaganda, kill themselves to escape trail

  38. Aftermath in Japan • Japan’s status • Major cities destroyed • Hirohito wanted to stop fighting and rebuild • General MacArthur was in charge of the US occupation of Japan • He began the demilitarization of Japan • Tokyo Trails-13 of the 25 defendants were condemned to hang • A New Japan • February 1946- MacArthur and his advisor make a new constitution for Japan • Parliamentary Government called the Diet • MacArthur was told not to save the Japanese ecomony • Emperor was reduced to a constitutional monarch • Japan and the United States became allies by the end of rebuilding

  39. Tactics • European(Cities) • Axis • Blitzkrieg-German fast moving attack with tanks and infantry • Luftwaffe-Air force raids and bombings • Allies • British Royal Air Force- Bombing of German factories • Paratroopers- Soldiers dropped inside enemy lines • Pacific(Water and Islands) • Axis(Japan) • Early control of the islands and quick battleships • Kamikazes- Suicide pilots that crashed into the US ships • Allies(America) • Island Hopping- Controlling islands on the way to Japan • Long distance bombings

  40. Cold War • Superpowers- Were wealthier and stronger • United States • Russia • Lasted from 1945-1991 • Nonalignment policy- Countries like India who didn’t take sides in the Cold War • Potsdam Conference • Gave Eastern Europe to the Soviets to control • First stage(1945-1949) • Main focus was on Europe and the Meditterean

  41. USSR VS US • The USSR took control of East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria • Iron Curtain – the division in Europe between Communist East and free West • United States plans to win over nations • The United States forms North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) • US, Canada, Britain, along with 9 other European nations • Truman Doctrine • Moral and material aid to any country whose government was threatened by communism • Marshall Plan • Pumped $13 billion into Europe to help get rid of the economic dominance in the USSR • USSR’s response • USSR forms Council for Mutual Economic Assistance(COMECON) in response to the Marshall plan • Warsaw Pact was formed in response to NATO

  42. The Cold War in Asia • Mao Zedong forms the People’s Republic of China (Communist) who allies themselves with the USSR • Korean War(1950-1953) • Civil war between communist North and noncommunist South • North was supported by China and the Soviet Union • South was supported by the United states who led a United Nations army • After 1 million deaths and 3 years of combat, the war ended in a stalemate and the country was still divided.

  43. Cold War in the 3rd World • Postwar decolonization and national liberation added new countries, who had to decide which side to choose. • The Cuban Revolution of 1959, placed a Soviet ally off the shore the United States. • Fidel Castro takes over as dictator • This caused the Cuban Missile Crisis, which was the closest the world was to nuclear war. • A U.S. spy plane found out what the Soviet were doing, so the U.S. put up a naval blockade. The Soviets backed down and this failed gamble led to the ouster of Khrushchev • Vietnam War(1954-1975) • Began with the liberation of Vietnam from France • American backed up the free South while Communist supported the communist North • The war took a turn for the worse in 1968 and the United States withdrew in defeat in 1973

  44. The Last Stage • When the USSR ended the American monopoly in 1949, a long nuclear arms race began • Along with this race another race began: The Space Race. • The Soviets launched the first satellite, Sputnik 1957 and first human, Yuri Gagarin 1961 • However the United States landed the first man on the moon in 1969 • Treaties • Cooperation on the enforcement of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty • To prevent the spread of nuclear weaponry • The two superpowers signed the first arms-control treaties as SALT, 1972, and Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty 1972

  45. End of the War • Mikhail Gorbachev-took over in 1985 • Two important reform policies • Perestroika-economic changes were the state had less control over the economy • Glasnost- Allowed greater freedom of the press, public criticism of political corruption and the workplace and allowed more of the USSR’s past to be known • The Walls Come Down • 1989- The fall of the Berlin Wall • A year later in October Germany was re-united • Collapse • The USSR fell apart near the end of 1991 • Anti-Soviet nationalism • The non-Russian parts wanted to be independent

  46. Developing Countries • Egypt • Gamal Abdel Nasser takes over after a coup in 1954 • 1956- He declared the Suez Canal in Egypt to weaken the British control • Nasser died in 1970. His successor was Anwar Sadat, who strengthen ties with the U.S • Sadat was the first Arab leader to recognize Israel • Iran and Iraq • Iranian Revolution made the anti-western and a theocracy • Saddam Hussein takes over Iraq in 1979 as dictator • Invades Kuwait(1990) causing the first Gulf War in 1991 • Africa • African National Congress(ANC) opposed white government • Apartheid-extreme racial segregation • Nelson Mandela, the leader of the ANC became first black president in 1994