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ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. Sania Munir 12-10235 Medical Biotechnology (BIOT 412). AN INTRODUCTION :. ALZHEIMER’S:

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alzheimer s disease

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Sania Munir

12-10235

Medical Biotechnology (BIOT 412)

an introduction
AN INTRODUCTION :

ALZHEIMER’S:

  • Alzheimer’s disease is a term used to describe a dementing disorder marked by certain brain changes, regardless of the age of onset. It is an irreversible, progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and gradually destroys memory, thinking, reason, judgment and behavior.
slide4

RISK FACTORS:

  • Increasing age (usually after age 65)
  • A family history of dementia
  • Down’s Syndrome

SIGNS OF ALZHEIMER’S:

  • Gradual loss of short term-memory.

Other signs include:

  • Problems finding and speaking the right word.
  • Difficulty performing familiar tasks, recognizing objects
  • Decreased judgment and reasoning ability
  • Changes in mood and behavior
  • Learning and remembering new information
  • Problems with abstract thinking
  • Loss of initiative
slide5

It stages come progressively

  • very early/primary Alzheimer’s Mild Moderate S Severe Alzheimer’s.

By the final stage, the brain cells shrink notably.

causes for alzheimer s disease
Causes for Alzheimer’s disease:
  • Alzheimer’s with a growing number of clues but still

no answers as to its cause.

  • None of the theories has resolved the mystery but

suggest that further investigation is needed.

There have been at least five prominent theories

about the cause of AD:

  • Chemical theories

(a) Biochemical changes in growth (trophic) factors.

(b) Chemical deficiencies

(c) Toxic chemical excesses

slide7

The Genetic Theory:

  • The apolipoprotein E (apoE) ε4 allele on chromosome 19 increases the risk for late-onset AD. ApoE4 may contribute to beta-amyloid buildup and APP (amyloid precursor gene) regulation.
  • Lower level of Neurotransmitters
  • Down’s Syndrome

(a) Birth defect in which the person has 3 copies of chromosome 21.

(b) Mental retardation →the gene for APP has been mapped to chromosome 21 →AD related to over-expression of APP.

slide8

The Autoimmune Theory

  • The Slow Virus Theory
  • The Blood Vessel Theory

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSPECTS:

  • No doubt genetic and other biological factors are important in Alzheimer’s disease, but environmental factors could also contribute to its development like Aluminium, zinc, food borne poisons and viruses.
slide9

PREVALENCE AND COSTS OF AD:

  • Occurrence of AD+ dementia related disorders= 5.7%
  • Prevalence of Pakistan = 1% annually
  • AD in Pakistan (extrapolated statistics) is: Extrapolated prevalence→ 2,341,122

Population estimation used→ 159,196,3362

  • In 2010 the caregivers provided 17 billion hrs of unpaid care. It costs $183 billion annually.
  • Since 2010 death rates from Alzheimer’s have raised 66%.
slide10

DIAGNOSTICS:

  • No diagnostic test for the detection of Alzheimer’s.
  • At beginning - Autopsy
  • CT scan and MRI for regular check and balance of brain memory
  • Memory tests of “possible Alzheimer’s dementia” (dementia due to a helping factor) or “probable Alzheimer’s dementia” (no other reason for dementia).
slide11

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT:

  • No prevention and No cure of Alzheimer’s disease

Drug Treatment:

  • Donepezil hydrochloride(Aricept), Cognex, Reminyl, Exelon and Memantine.
  • These drugs only temporarily halt or reverse coginitive losses from AD and

do not prevent AD

from continuing to

kill the nerve cells

that normally

producing

acetylcholine.

slide12

PREVENTION:

As there is no prevention to avoid AD but there are

some precautions which a person should follow:

  • Take low fat diet
  • Decrease the ingestion of linoleic acid which is present in dairy products.
  • Maintain a normal blood pressure.
  • Try to be active socially and mentally in all cases
slide13

IMPORTANCE IN PAKISTAN:

  • “Alzheimer’s Pakistan” A Non-Government National Organization is working for the welfare of people who are suffering from dementia and their care givers.
  • Run by volunteers from all members of the society, who have dedicated themselves for this dignified root.
  • Pakistan is trying to overcome this mystery by doing research in this field.
  • VIDEO …