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Chapter 11 Multicultural Issues. Carmen, Eduardo, Denise, and Amy. What we will do tonight. Take a short Pre-quiz Talk about Ethnicity, Culture, and Diverse Populations Talk about the Issues to Consider when Working with Diverse Populations Talk about Assessment and our Research Articles

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chapter 11 multicultural issues

Chapter 11 Multicultural Issues

Carmen, Eduardo, Denise, and Amy

what we will do tonight
What we will do tonight
  • Take a short Pre-quiz
  • Talk about Ethnicity, Culture, and Diverse Populations
  • Talk about the Issues to Consider when Working with Diverse Populations
  • Talk about Assessment and our Research Articles
  • Talk about the Interventions Available
  • View a few online resources for those who want to know more
  • Review Bilingual Techniques in Schools now
  • Take a short Post-Quiz
pre quiz
  • True/False
  • Multiculturalism is exclusively language.
  • A student’s performance on assessments is affected by their culture.
  • Ethnicity and culture are the same thing.
  • Communication is only spoken language.
  • ESL pullout is the most effective bilingual program.
what is multiculturalism
What is multiculturalism?
  • The preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society.
  • This means:
            • Celebrating ourselves
            • Celebrating others
            • Learning more about others
            • Learning more about the world as a whole
            • Accepting others’ language, philosophy, and personal history
essential questions
Essential Questions

What do we need to know about multicultural


chapter overview questions
Chapter overview questions
  • What is an ethnic group?
  • Are there bilingual speech-language pathologists (SLP)?
  • Name some characteristics of culture group.
  • How is school achievement impacted?
  • How do you modify assessment and intervention?
  • Terms every educator should know:
        • Acculturation
        • Individualism
        • Collectivism
        • Bilingualism
        • Bidialectism
ethnicity and culture
Ethnicity and culture

Ethnic group

Culture frameworks

Social practices, beliefs, values, and behaviors that members of a group intentionally and unintentionally.

  • A group of individuals who share a common language, heritage, religion, or geography/ nationality
the seven major american ethnic groups
The Seven major American ethnic groups
  • European (194,552,774)
  • Hispanic (39,305,818)
  • African American (34,659,190)
  • Asian/Pacific Islands (10,641,833)
  • Native American(2,475,956)
  • West Indian (1,869,504)
  • Arabic Descent (1,202,871)

Mixed Cultural Descent is Rising (6,826,228)

what do the numbers mean
What Do the numbers mean?
  • Teachers need to work more than ever to be culturally reflective, and keep a high cultural sensitivity.
  • Teachers should expect to see an increasingly large number of children with two or more cultures mixed within their family. We need to help these children celebrate their rich mixed heritages.
issues to consider1
Issues to consider
  • Understanding the complex macro system influences on a family
  • Families operate according to their own cultural traditions
  • The dominant culture is usually the European American tradition as well as mainstream culture
  • Families may have issues with acculturation or when families feel they need to maintain their own cultural identity while at the same time accepting the values and beliefs of the European American tradition.
patterns of acculturation
Patterns of acculturation



A family wants to adopt the EA and let go of their own culture

  • A family wants to maintain their own culture while adopting the EA culture

Bilingual Commercial


“The number one predictor for long-term academic achievement in English is the extent and quality of L1 schooling.”

Thomas & Collier, 2002


Blue Labels for English

Red Labels for Spanish


Bilingual Word Wall

Blue - English Red - Spanish

  • Approximately 14% of the American population speak a language other than English
  • Spanish is the 2nd most widely spoken language in the USA

  • In contrast with minority groups such as:

Screening and diagnostic testing

assessing a child in his or her native language
Assessing a child in his or her native language

IDEA 2004- avoid discrimination

Avoid focus on syntax and phonology

Process-oriented like digit recall

Dynamic Assessments

Mediated Learning

“Teach” phase

Assess learning behaviors

Goal is to try or guess

  • Process-oriented
  • Output compared to norm
  • Test-teach-retest approach
pragmatic differences
Pragmatic Differences
  • Be aware of collectivist culture values
  • rules of politeness
  • responses to social situations
  • communication values
  • questioning format
  • eye contact
skilled practitioners should cultural differences
Skilled practitioners should…Cultural Differences

Consider cultural differences

Have cultural sensitivity

consideration 1
Consideration #1

The Role of Family in the Student’s Intervention

  • Nuclear vs. extended
  • Dyadic interactions (2 person)
  • Sibling care
  • Multi-play language interactions
consideration 2
Consideration #2
  • The Role of the Family Values about child communication norms
  • Increase the amount of child talk
  • Value lots of talk
  • Initiate conversations with adults
      • Japanese, groups of Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, Navajo, usually encourage verbal restraint and quietness
  • Avoid cultural conflicts
  • Knowing how to address adults
      • Address Mr. and Mrs.
      • African Americans and Mexican Americans expect respect and courteous gestures
      • Asian~ surname precedes the given name
questions that help you understand a family s ethnic tradition
Questions that help you understand a family’s ethnic tradition
  • 1. How would you describe your ethnicity?
  • 2. Would you describe your child as spending most of his/her time interacting with just the two of you, interacting with you and other siblings or interacting with you and other adult friends and family members?
  • 3. Would you describe your child as talking too little or needing to talk more?
  • 4. When do you and your child do most of your talking? ~while driving in a car, dinner table, at night getting ready for bed or other times
results of the survey
Results of the survey
  • TIME
  • 2~interacting with parents and siblings
  • 3~ interacting with adult friends and family
  • 1~too little
  • 2~ needs to talk more
  • WHEN
  • 1~driving in the car
  • 2~ dinner table
  • 5~other times
e s l interventions
E.S.L Interventions
  • The ESL specialist has many ESLinterventions, materials, and books that are available for all teachers in the school.
intervention materials
Intervention Materials
  • Which is your favorite Intervention?
  • Review
  • Charlie Brown
  • Today we talked about:
  • We need to be culturally aware and culturally sensitivity.
  • Dual language is the most effective bilingual program.
  • At school, you need a good mentoring program.
  • Assessments should be in L1. and culturally sensitive.
  • Two considerations for intervention include the role of the family and family values.
evaluaci n
  • Escoge A, B, o C
  • 1.- Cual es la mejor manera de evitar conflictos culturales durante la intervención?
  • a.) No hacer nada b.) Mandar un cuestionario a casa
  • c.) Entrevistar a la familia, mandar un cuestionario sobre antecedentes culturales
  • 2.- Para una familia, mantener la identidad cultural mientras adaptan otra se llama:
  • a) Marginalización b) separaciónc) integración
  • 3.- Evaluación dinámica es:
  • a) Dirigida a producirb) Dirigida por un procesoc) norma de referencia
  • 4.- La minoría con mayor crecimiento en los Estados Unidos es:
  • a) Hispanosb) Europeosc) Áfrico Americanos
  • 5.- Una consecuencia positiva sobre NCLB es:
  • a) las escuelas deben modificar su instrucción
  • b) Evaluaciones de alto riesgo
  • c) perdida de financiamiento federal
  • Chose a, b, or c.
  • 1. What are the best ways to avoid cultural conflict during intervention?
  • a. do nothing
  • b. send a survey home
  • c. send survey, interview family, learn about cultural background
  • 2. For a family, maintaining your own culture while adopting another is called
  • a. marginalization b. separation c. integration
  • 3. Dynamic assessment is
  • a. product-oriented b. process-orientated c. norm-referenced
  • 4. The most prevalent minority group is the United States is
  • a. Hispanic b. European c. African-American
  • 5. One positive consequence of NCLB is
  • a. schools are mandated to modify instruction
  • b. high-stakes testing
  • c. loss of federal funding
  • multiculturalism. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from website:
  • Chu, S.-Y. & Flores, S. (2011). Preventing disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as having a language impairment. Language Society and Culture, 32, 17-27.
  • Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2012). Human diversity in education: An interculturalapproach. (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Delaney, R. (2010, July 06). Dialect map of americanenglish [Web log message]. Retrieved from
  • Harushimana, I., & Awokoya, J. (2011). African-born immigrants in u.s. schools: An intercultural perspective on schooling and diversity. Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, 6(1), 34-48.
  • Kaderavek, Joan N. Language Disorders in Children. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon, 2011.
  • Kumasi, K., & Hill, R. F. (2011). Are we there yet? results of a gap analysis to measure lis students' prior knowledge and actual learning of cultural competence concepts. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 52(4), 251-264.
  • Obiakor, F. E. (2007). Multicultural special education: Effective intervention for today. Intervention in School and Clinic, 42(3), 148-155.
  • Pimentel, C. (2011). The politics of caring in a bilingual classroom: A case study on the (im)possibilities of critical care in an assimilationist school context. Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, 6(1), 49-60.