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Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1 PowerPoint Presentation
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Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1

Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1

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Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1

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    1. Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1 What is Multicultural Psychology?

    2. Define multicultural psychology Introduce key concepts in the field of multicultural psychology Define other key terms, including culture, race, ethnicity, and worldview Provide a historical context for the field of multicultural psychology Explain the key assumptions and theoretical propositions of multicultural psychology Encourage students to reflect on the effect of culture on their own behavior, cognitions, and affect

    3. What is Multicultural Psychology? Narrow and Broad Definitions of Culture Culture and Worldview What is Race? Multicultural Psychology versus Cross-cultural Psychology


    5. Culture There are many definitions of culture. Our textbook authors suggest: Culture reflects the unique and specific values, beliefs, and practices of a specific group of people. Note that culture is a characteristic of a group, but is reflected in the influence it has on individual members of that group. Culture: APA Definition "Culture" is defined as the belief systems and value orientations that influence customs, norms, practices, and social institutions, including psychological processes, language, care taking practices, media, educational systems, and organizations (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998).

    6. Worldview Our textbook defines worldview as a psychological perception of the world that determines how we think, behave, and feel. Worldview: APA Definition The Definitions subsection of the Guidelines does not contain a specific entry for worldview at this time. However, throughout the six numbered Guidelines brief references are made to the influence that cultural worldviews have on thinking, feeling, and behaving.

    7. Race (also see Appendix I at the end of this slideshow) Our textbook authors suggest that most people use the terms culture, race, and ethnicity interchangeably, although technically they have different and distinct meanings Our authors suggest that the term race is used in two main ways as a biological concept and as a sociocultural concept. Biological Concept of Race The perspective that a race is a group of people who share a a specific combination of physical, genetically inherited characteristics that distinguish them from other groups. Sociocultural Concept of Race The perspective that characteristics, values, and behaviors that have been associated with groups of different physical characteristics serve the social purpose of providing a way for outsiders to view another group and for members of a group to perceive themselves.

    8. Race: APA Definition In the Guidelines, the definition of race is considered to be socially constructed, rather than biologically determined. Race, then, is the category to which others assign individuals on the basis of physical characteristics, such as skin color or hair type, and the generalizations and stereotypes made as a result. Thus, "people are treated or studied as though they belong to biologically defined racial groups on the basis of such characteristics" (Helms & Talleyrand, 1997). Ethnicity Our textbook defines ethnicity, in general, as simply a combination of race and culture Ethnicity: APA Definition The Guidelines refer to ethnicity as the acceptance of the group mores and practices of one's culture of origin and the concomitant sense of belonging. We also note that, consistent with Brewer (1999), Sedikides and Brewer (2001), and Hornsey and Hogg (2000), individuals may have multiple ethnic identities that operate with different salience at different times.

    9. Multicultural or Cross-Cultural ? Our textbook authors note that the terms Multicultural, Cross-cultural, Cultural, and Ethnic Minority Psychology are used by different authors, and they suggest that these terms often refer to the same general area of study; namely, how culture influences cognitions, emotions, and behaviors However, they nonetheless suggest that Cross-cultural psychology studies the effects of differences in culture between different countries or nations of the world; for example, the value placed on friendship by people brought up in Canada versus people brought up in the United States Multicultural psychology studies the effects of differences in culture which exist in the same country or nation of the world; for example, the value placed on friendship by Asian-Americans brought up in the United States versus Euro-Americans brought up in the United States

    10. Why Do We Need the Field of Multicultural Psychology? We need multicultural psychology because, quite simply, the United States is a multicultural society. It is in fact a setting where people of different backgrounds encounter one another. All individuals exist in social, political, historical, and economic contexts, and psychologists are increasingly called upon to understand the influence of these contexts on individuals behavior. The Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists reflect the continuing evolution of the study of psychology, changes in society-at-large, and emerging data about the different needs for particular individuals and groups historically marginalized or disenfranchised within and by psychology based on their ethnic/racial heritage and social group identity or membership. NM Census Data DSM V

    11. Multiculturalism as the Fourth Force Multiculturalism as the fourth force is the idea that multicultural psychology is so important that it will fundamentally change the direction of the field of psychology, as psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanism have. Paradigm Shift a major change in the way people think about a field.

    12. Understanding the Cultural Context of Behavior: The Biopsychosocial Model Biopsychosocial Model a model of human behavior that takes into consideration biological, cognitive-affective, social interpersonal, social institutional, and cultural factors

    13. The Basic Tenets of Multicultural Theory See text See Key Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions According to the APA Multicultural Guidelines

    14. Historical Background Dubious Beginnings The work of early psychologists on racial group differences and the response of ethnic minority psychology [ethnical psychology: the study of the minds of other races and peoples] to their racist conclusions can be considered the early roots of multicultural psychology. (cf. Overview Slideshows)

    15. We Begin to Define Ourselves Some ethnic minority psychological research in the 1930s turned to the effects of forces such as racism, discrimination, and poverty on individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. This required, and led to, determining more precise definitions of what racial and ethnic identity and terms mean

    16. Gender Differences Psychological research was traditionally dominated by white male psychologists, studying groups of white male undergraduates in research. Psychological theories about all people (regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender) were based on these studies. Our authors note that psychologist Carol Gilligan was influential in bringing issues of including equal gender representation in research studies and theory-building to the forefront of psychology. Note that some psychologists refer to the categories male and female as sex (which is considered a biological term) rather than gender which is considered a sociocultural role term (like males are expected to play with trucks and grow up to be lawyers, and females are expected to play with dolls and grow up to be the wives of lawyers and houses)

    17. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual [and Transgender] Issues Our textbook authors suggest there have been 3 historical trends in psychological research with and theorizing about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and transgender individuals: Examining the extent that homosexuality was a psychological disorder (cf. DSM history) A reaction to this, and examining the extent that homosexuality (sexual orientation) was not a psychological disorder A current focus on presumed biological (rather than psychological) determinants of sexual orientation, and differences and similarities with exclusively heterosexual individuals

    18. Historical Background Dubious Beginnings We Begin to Define Ourselves Gender Differences Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues What is current NIH policy on group inclusion for funding psychological research?

    19. The Rise of Multiculturalism APA Divisions APA Guidelines ...

    20. Appendix I: Race (Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca. "Race." Microsoft Encarta 2008 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2007.) Most scientists have discredited race as a biological concept, and see race as a sociological concept.