Aerospace dimensions module 2 aircraft systems airports
Download
1 / 32

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 440 Views
  • Updated On :

Aerospace Dimensions – Module 2 Aircraft Systems & Airports. Aerospace For Cadets. Airplane Systems Combustion Reciprocating Aircraft Engines Jet (Turbine) Engines Controls & Instruments Airports Layout, Signs & Makings FAA Flight Profile Phonetic Alphabet Aeronautical Charts

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - medwin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Aerospace dimensions module 2 aircraft systems airports l.jpg
Aerospace Dimensions – Module 2Aircraft Systems & Airports

Aerospace For Cadets

Airplane Systems

  • Combustion

  • Reciprocating Aircraft Engines

  • Jet (Turbine) Engines

  • Controls & Instruments

    Airports

  • Layout, Signs & Makings

  • FAA

  • Flight Profile

  • Phonetic Alphabet

    Aeronautical Charts

  • Sectional Charts, Legend, Features

  • Airport Information

  • Latitude & Longitude

Rev. 0 – Feb 2009

Bruce Bream, LtCol. / CAP

Eagle Composite Squadron

Ohio Wing Civil Air Patrol


Slide2 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Introduction

  • Airplane Systems Learning Outcomes

  • Reciprocating Aircraft Engine Operation

  • Recognize Engine Parts

  • Jet (Turbine) Engine Operation

  • Cockpit Powerplant Controls

  • Flight Instruments


Slide3 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Combustion

Combustion

Atomize the fuel  Add an oxygen  Then a spark

Chemical process  Mechanical energy

  • Fuel: AvGas or Jet fuel carried in aircraft tanks

  • Oxidizer: Air (21% oxygen)

    Fuel to Air Mixture Ratio

  • Rich = More fuel than air

    Stoichiometric ratio (STO-kee-oh-met-rik)

  • Mixture Ratio that uses ALL the Fuel and Oxidizer

    Mixture changes with altitude to get same mixture ratio

  • Thinner air has less oxygen content

    Ignition

  • Spark plug run by high voltage from a magneto

    Combustion is just one part of an engine cycle


Slide4 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

Brought to you by INTERNAL Combustion

Reciprocating Engine

  • Engine parts reciprocate

    • Move back and forth

  • Combustion chamber

    • Piston stroke in the cylinder

  • 4-Stroke Operating Cycle

    • Intake, Compression, Power, Exhaust

  • Magneto & Spark plugs

    • Ignite fuel and air in the cylinder

  • Air and oil cooled

rpm

= revolutions per minute

Let’s look at some airplane engine parts

Animation Credit:

http::www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/engopt.html


Slide5 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems – Reciprocating Engines

Animation Credit:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine


Slide6 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

  • Carburetor

  • Mixes fuel and air for a reciprocating engine

  • Venturi uses the Bernoulli Principle

    • Drops pressure to mix and vaporize fuel

Usually found on the bottom of the engine


Slide7 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines


Slide8 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines

Intake

Compression

Combustion

Exhaust

Afterburner

Sprays fuel into Exhaust

Turbine (Jet) Engine

  • Continuous Combustion Cycle

    • Everything rotates around and flows along the centerline shaft


Slide9 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines

  • GE-90 Turbofan

  • - Engine Inlet inspection

  • - 115,000 lb thrust

  • - 45:1 compression

    • - 660 psi to combustor

  • - Weights 18,260 lbs

  • - 3,000 lbs/sec air flow

  • - Fan turns at 2,500 rpm


Slide10 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines


Slide11 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems -Instrumentation

Flight Instruments

Typical

General Aviation

Aircraft

Instrumentation

(pre-glass panel)

Engine Instruments

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)

Tachometer

(rpm)

Manifold

Pressure


Slide12 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems -Instrumentation

Gyroscopic Instruments

Attitude Indicator

(artificial horizon)

Spinning gyro rotor provides stable reference in space

Heading Indicator

(stabilized compass)

Turn Coordinator

(rate of turn)

Also Skid/Slip Ball


Slide13 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Instrumentation

Pitot Tube

Ram air pressure

Static Port

Non-moving air pressure

  • Pitot/Static System Instruments

  • Standard Pressure

  • 29.92” Hg (English) = 1013.2 millibars (Metric)

  • Pressure drops with altitude

  • 1 inch per 1000 feet

  • Instruments use two air probes:

Airspeed Indicator

(pitot to static)

Altimeter

(static pressure)

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

(static rate)


Slide14 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Engine Controls

Propeller RPM

(Constant pitch propellers)

Throttle quadrant

Throttle

Mixture Ratio


Slide15 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Overview

  • Airports Learning Outcomes

  • Role of the FAA

  • Flight Profile

  • GA Airport Layout

  • Taxiway & Runway Signs & Markings

  • Phonetic Alphabet


Slide16 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – FAA

  • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

  • Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)

    • Regulate air transportation

    • Standards for Aircraft and Airports

    • Pilot certification

  • Air Traffic Control (ATC)

    • In-flight

    • Towered Airports


Slide17 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Flight Profile

  • Cruise

  • Descent

  • Approach to landing

  • Takeoff

  • Climb

  • Landing

  • Taxi

  • Shut down

  • Preflight

  • (VFR & IFR)

  • Taxi


Slide18 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

Airport Rotating Beacons

Water Airport

White /

Yellow

Public Airport

White /

Green

Heliport

White /

Green /

Yellow

Military Airfield

White /

White /

Green


Slide19 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

VASI – Visual Approach Slope Indicator

PAPI – Precision Approach Path Indicator

Approach Flight Path Guidance Lighting


Slide20 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Signs

Wind Direction Indicators

Location Signs

Direction & Destination Signs

Mandatory Signs

Remaining runway

In 1,000’s of feet

6

ILS

Information Signs

UNICOM 122.9


Slide21 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Runway & Taxiway Markings

N

360°

18 R

E

90°

W

270°

S

180°

36 L

18 L

Visual

Runway

27

9

Non-Precision

Approach

A

9-27

A

9-27↑

18R-36L↑

B

  • Runway Number

  • Magnetic Heading

  • 2 digits

  • Degrees / 10

Ramp

36 R

36L-18R

B

Precision Approach


Slide22 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

18

36

Runway Lighting

  • Runway

  • Edge

  • Lights

  • White in

  • Red out

Taxiway Edge Lights – Blue

Centerline

In-Runway Lights – White

  • Runway End

  • Identification Lights

  • (REIL)

  • Strobes

  • Runway Threshold Lights

  • Green facing approach

  • Red facing runway

Approach Lighting System (ALS)


Slide23 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Phonetic Alphabet

A Alpha (Al fah)

B Bravo(Brah voh)

C Charlie(Char lee)

D Delta(Dell tah)

E Echo (Eck-oh)

F Foxtrot(Foks trot)

G Golf (Golf)

H Hotel (Hoh tell)

I India (In dee ah)

J Juliet (Joo lee ett)

K Kilo (Kee loh)

L Lima (Lee mah)

M Mike (Mike)

N November (No vem ber)

O Oscar (Oss cah)

P Papa (Pah pah)

Q Quebec (Keh beck)

R Romeo (Row me oh)

S Sierra (See air rah)

T Tango (Tang go)

U Uniform (U nee form)

V Victor (Vik tah)

W Whiskey (Wiss kee)

X X-Ray (Ecksray)

Y Yankee (Yang kee)

Z Zulu (Zoo loo)

  • 1 Wun

  • 2 Too

  • 3 Tree

  • 4 Fo-wer

  • 5 Fife

  • 6 Six

  • 7 Seven

  • 8 Ate

  • Niner

  • 0 Zero


Slide24 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Introduction

  • Aeronautical Charts Learning Outcomes

  • Sectional Chart Layout

  • Chart Legend

  • Reading Latitude and Longitude

  • Identify Features

  • Read Airport Information


Slide25 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Deg, Min, Sec

N

  • 360 degrees in a circle

    • 60 minutes in a degree

      • 60 seconds in a minute

        Degrees ° Minutes ’ Seconds "

E

90°

W

270°

60 seconds

1 minute

S

180°

60 minutes

1 degree

Q: How many seconds in a degree?


Slide26 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Latitude & Longitude

  • Parallels of Latitude

  • Measured from Equator

  • 0 to 90 degrees North and South

90° N – North Pole

60° N

30° N

0° Equator

30° S

60° S

90° S – South Pole

  • Meridians of Longitude

  • Measured from Prime Meridian

  • 0 to 180 degrees East and West

  • Converge at poles

N

Measured in

Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

90° W

90° E

S


Slide27 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Map Coordinates

40 degrees

30 minutes

North Latitude

40 degrees North Latitude

Prime Meridian is 0° Longitude

Longitude measured from Prime Meridian

85 degrees West Longitude

84 degrees

30 minutes West Longitude

Latitude measured from Equator

Equator is 0° Latitude


Slide28 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Distance & Speed

1 Nautical Mile = 6,076 feet

1 Nautical Mile (nm) = 6076 feet

= 1 minute of longitude at the equator

1 Statue Mile (sm) = 5,280 feet

1 Statute Mile = 5,280 feet

Conversion factor: 1 nm = 1.15 sm

Example: 25 nm = 28.7 sm

Sectional chart 1:500,000 inches or 1” = 8 nm

Knot = 1 nm per hour (Measures speed)

100 knots = 115 mph


Slide29 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Sectionals

Sectional Aeronautical Charts

  • Sectional chart scale 1:500,000 inches

  • 1” on the chart = 8 nm on the ground

  • Each chart covers 8° of Longitude and 4° of Latitude

  • Named after a city on the chart


Slide30 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Legend

Navigation Aids

Towers

Airports

Cities

Wildlife refuges

Water

ATC Airspace

Railroad


Slide31 l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Airport Info

NEIL ARMSTRONG – Airport Name

(AXV)– ICAO Airport Identifier

AWOS-3 128.325 – Automated Weather Observation Service frequency

913 – Elevation in feet Mean Sea Level (MSL)

*L – Lighted runway ( * = with some limitations)

55 – Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet

122.8 – Common Traffic Advisory Frequency

Rotating Beacon

Uncontrolled Airport - MAGENTA

Control Tower Airport - BLUE

CUYAHOGA CO – Airport Name

(CGF) – ICAO Airport Identifier

CT - 118.5* – Control Tower Frequency (* means not 24hr)

879 – Elevation in feet MSL

*L– Lighted runway ( * = with some limitations)

51– Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet

122.95– Unicom for FBO