Objectives. List the key structures of the brain and describe the role of neurons in communication within the brain. Explain the differences between mental health and mental illness and list some effects of mental illness on physical health.
List the key structures of the brain and describe the role of neurons in communication within the brain.
Explain the differences between mental health and mental illness and list some effects of mental illness on physical health.
Name the major mental illnesses and their characteristic symptoms.
Discuss some of the factors that may lead to suicide, as well as strategies for prevention.
Describe the treatment options available for those with psychological problems.
Name the option you will consider if you have a mental health problem, and describe the reasons for your choice.
Have bigger brains.
Have eyes which are more sensitive to bright light.
Retain ability to see well at long distances longer in life.
Loses brain tissue more rapidly than women.
Use more neurons.
Hears a broader range of sounds.
Hearing remains sharper, longer.
Responds more intensely to emotions.Are Men’s and Women’s Brains Different?
The Bottom Line
Neither gender’s brain is “better”.
Establishes and maintains close relationships
Perceives reality as it is
Carries out responsibilities
MENTALLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL
Feels a sense of fulfillment in daily living
Accepts own limitations and possibilities
Pursues work that suits talents and training
Fig. 4-3, p. 84
A behavioral or
associated with distress
or disability with a
risk of suffering death,
pain, disability, or loss
Factors Contributing to Depression
Genes, brain chemistry, sex hormones,
childhood abuse, chronic stress, divorce, job
loss, or career setbacks.
Loss of interest
Eating more or less
Having trouble sleeping
Feeling slowed down
Lack of energy
Difficulty thinking clearly
Persistent thoughts of death
Withdrawal from others
Headaches, digestive problems, aches and painsMajor DepressionCharacteristic Symptoms
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Mood swings that take individuals from manic states of feeling euphoric and energetic to depressive states of utter despair.
Involves mood swings, changes in thinking, changes in behavior, and changes in physical condition.
PsychotherapyBipolar DisorderManic Depression
An anxiety disorder masked
by an inordinate fear of an object, a class of objects,
or a situation, resulting in
Involve animals (dogs, snakes, insects, and mice); sight of blood; claustrophobia, acrophobia; and agoraphobia.
A short episode characterized by physical sensations of lightheadedness, dizziness, hyperventilation, and numbness of extremities, accompanied by an inexplicable terror, usually of a physical disaster such as death.
An anxiety disorder in which the apprehension or experience of recurring panic attacks is so intense that normal functioning is impaired.Anxiety DisordersPanic Attacks and Panic Disorder
An anxiety disorder
characterized as chronic
Faster heart rate, sweating,
increased blood pressure,
muscle aches, intestinal
pains, irritability, sleep
problems, and difficulty
Antianxiety drugs.Anxiety DisordersGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
An anxiety disorder
compulsions that impair
one’s ability to function and
A recurring idea, thought or
Repetitive behavior performed according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion
MedicationsAnxiety DisordersObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
A spectrum of difficulties in controlling motion and sustaining attention, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility.
Academic difficulties, poor concentration, difficulty making decisions, relationship difficulties, sleep problems, increased risk of depression, anxiety disorders and substance abuse.
PsychotherapyAttention DisordersAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)