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Objectives. List the key structures of the brain and describe the role of neurons in communication within the brain. Explain the differences between mental health and mental illness and list some effects of mental illness on physical health.

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objectives
Objectives

List the key structures of the brain and describe the role of neurons in communication within the brain.

Explain the differences between mental health and mental illness and list some effects of mental illness on physical health.

Name the major mental illnesses and their characteristic symptoms.

chapter 4 objectives
Chapter 4 Objectives

Discuss some of the factors that may lead to suicide, as well as strategies for prevention.

Describe the treatment options available for those with psychological problems.

Name the option you will consider if you have a mental health problem, and describe the reasons for your choice.

are men s and women s brains different
Men

Have bigger brains.

Have eyes which are more sensitive to bright light.

Retain ability to see well at long distances longer in life.

Loses brain tissue more rapidly than women.

Women

Use more neurons.

Hears a broader range of sounds.

Hearing remains sharper, longer.

Responds more intensely to emotions.

Are Men’s and Women’s Brains Different?

The Bottom Line

Neither gender’s brain is “better”.

slide4

The Mentally Well Individual

Establishes and maintains close relationships

Perceives reality as it is

Carries out responsibilities

MENTALLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL

Feels a sense of fulfillment in daily living

Values himself/herself

Accepts own limitations and possibilities

Pursues work that suits talents and training

Fig. 4-3, p. 84

what is a mental disorder
What is a Mental Disorder?

A behavioral or

psychological syndrome

associated with distress

or disability with a

significantly increased

risk of suffering death,

pain, disability, or loss

of freedom.

gender and depression
Gender and Depression
  • Depression is twice as common in females versus males, but male depression is an “under” disease
    • “underdiscussed”, “underrecognized”, “underdiagnosed”, and “undertreated”.

Factors Contributing to Depression

Genes, brain chemistry, sex hormones,

childhood abuse, chronic stress, divorce, job

loss, or career setbacks.

major depression characteristic symptoms
Feeling depressed

Loss of interest

Eating more or less

Having trouble sleeping

Feeling slowed down

Lack of energy

Feeling helpless

Difficulty concentrating

Difficulty thinking clearly

Persistent thoughts of death

Withdrawal from others

Headaches, digestive problems, aches and pains

Major DepressionCharacteristic Symptoms
depressive disorders treatments
Depressive DisordersTreatments

Psychotherapy

Cognitive-behavior therapy

Interpersonal therapy

Medications

Antidepressants

Exercise

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

bipolar disorder manic depression
Characteristics

Mood swings that take individuals from manic states of feeling euphoric and energetic to depressive states of utter despair.

Involves mood swings, changes in thinking, changes in behavior, and changes in physical condition.

Treatment

Mood-stabilizing medications

Psychotherapy

Bipolar DisorderManic Depression
anxiety disorders phobias
Definition

An anxiety disorder masked

by an inordinate fear of an object, a class of objects,

or a situation, resulting in

extreme avoidance

behaviors.

Common Phobias

Involve animals (dogs, snakes, insects, and mice); sight of blood; claustrophobia, acrophobia; and agoraphobia.

Treatment

Behavior therapy

including systematic

desensitization.

Anxiety DisordersPhobias
anxiety disorders panic attacks and panic disorder
Panic Attack

A short episode characterized by physical sensations of lightheadedness, dizziness, hyperventilation, and numbness of extremities, accompanied by an inexplicable terror, usually of a physical disaster such as death.

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder in which the apprehension or experience of recurring panic attacks is so intense that normal functioning is impaired.

Anxiety DisordersPanic Attacks and Panic Disorder
anxiety disorders generalized anxiety disorder gad
Definition

An anxiety disorder

characterized as chronic

distress.

Common Symptoms

Faster heart rate, sweating,

increased blood pressure,

muscle aches, intestinal

pains, irritability, sleep

problems, and difficulty

concentrating.

Treatment

Psychotherapy.

Behavioral therapy.

Antianxiety drugs.

Anxiety DisordersGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
anxiety disorders obsessive compulsive disorder ocd
Definition

An anxiety disorder

characterized by

obsessions and/or

compulsions that impair

one’s ability to function and

form relationships.

Obsession

A recurring idea, thought or

image.

Compulsion

Repetitive behavior performed according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion

Treatment

Cognitive therapy

Behavioral therapy

Medications

Anxiety DisordersObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
attention disorders attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adhd
Definition

A spectrum of difficulties in controlling motion and sustaining attention, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility.

Potential Complications

Academic difficulties, poor concentration, difficulty making decisions, relationship difficulties, sleep problems, increased risk of depression, anxiety disorders and substance abuse.

Treatments

Medications

Stimulants:

Ritalin

Nonstimulants:

Strattera

Psychotherapy

Attention DisordersAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
suicide prevention
Suicide Prevention
  • Encourage your friend to talk.
  • Don’t offer trite reassurances.
  • Suggest solutions or alternatives to problems.
  • Don’t be afraid to ask whether your friend has considered suicide.
  • Don’t think that people who talk about killing themselves never carry out their threat.
surviving and thriving
Surviving and Thriving
  • Accept yourself.
  • Respect yourself.
  • Trust yourself.
  • Love yourself.
  • Stretch yourself.
  • Look at challenges as opportunities for personal growth.
  • Think not only where but also who you want to be a decade from now.