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Objectives. List the key structures of the brain and describe the role of neurons in communication within the brain. Explain the differences between mental health and mental illness and list some effects of mental illness on physical health.

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List the key structures of the brain and describe the role of neurons in communication within the brain.

Explain the differences between mental health and mental illness and list some effects of mental illness on physical health.

Name the major mental illnesses and their characteristic symptoms.

chapter 4 objectives
Chapter 4 Objectives

Discuss some of the factors that may lead to suicide, as well as strategies for prevention.

Describe the treatment options available for those with psychological problems.

Name the option you will consider if you have a mental health problem, and describe the reasons for your choice.

are men s and women s brains different

Have bigger brains.

Have eyes which are more sensitive to bright light.

Retain ability to see well at long distances longer in life.

Loses brain tissue more rapidly than women.


Use more neurons.

Hears a broader range of sounds.

Hearing remains sharper, longer.

Responds more intensely to emotions.

Are Men’s and Women’s Brains Different?

The Bottom Line

Neither gender’s brain is “better”.


The Mentally Well Individual

Establishes and maintains close relationships

Perceives reality as it is

Carries out responsibilities


Feels a sense of fulfillment in daily living

Values himself/herself

Accepts own limitations and possibilities

Pursues work that suits talents and training

Fig. 4-3, p. 84

what is a mental disorder
What is a Mental Disorder?

A behavioral or

psychological syndrome

associated with distress

or disability with a

significantly increased

risk of suffering death,

pain, disability, or loss

of freedom.

gender and depression
Gender and Depression
  • Depression is twice as common in females versus males, but male depression is an “under” disease
    • “underdiscussed”, “underrecognized”, “underdiagnosed”, and “undertreated”.

Factors Contributing to Depression

Genes, brain chemistry, sex hormones,

childhood abuse, chronic stress, divorce, job

loss, or career setbacks.

major depression characteristic symptoms
Feeling depressed

Loss of interest

Eating more or less

Having trouble sleeping

Feeling slowed down

Lack of energy

Feeling helpless

Difficulty concentrating

Difficulty thinking clearly

Persistent thoughts of death

Withdrawal from others

Headaches, digestive problems, aches and pains

Major DepressionCharacteristic Symptoms
depressive disorders treatments
Depressive DisordersTreatments


Cognitive-behavior therapy

Interpersonal therapy




Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

bipolar disorder manic depression

Mood swings that take individuals from manic states of feeling euphoric and energetic to depressive states of utter despair.

Involves mood swings, changes in thinking, changes in behavior, and changes in physical condition.


Mood-stabilizing medications


Bipolar DisorderManic Depression
anxiety disorders phobias

An anxiety disorder masked

by an inordinate fear of an object, a class of objects,

or a situation, resulting in

extreme avoidance


Common Phobias

Involve animals (dogs, snakes, insects, and mice); sight of blood; claustrophobia, acrophobia; and agoraphobia.


Behavior therapy

including systematic


Anxiety DisordersPhobias
anxiety disorders panic attacks and panic disorder
Panic Attack

A short episode characterized by physical sensations of lightheadedness, dizziness, hyperventilation, and numbness of extremities, accompanied by an inexplicable terror, usually of a physical disaster such as death.

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder in which the apprehension or experience of recurring panic attacks is so intense that normal functioning is impaired.

Anxiety DisordersPanic Attacks and Panic Disorder
anxiety disorders generalized anxiety disorder gad

An anxiety disorder

characterized as chronic


Common Symptoms

Faster heart rate, sweating,

increased blood pressure,

muscle aches, intestinal

pains, irritability, sleep

problems, and difficulty




Behavioral therapy.

Antianxiety drugs.

Anxiety DisordersGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
anxiety disorders obsessive compulsive disorder ocd

An anxiety disorder

characterized by

obsessions and/or

compulsions that impair

one’s ability to function and

form relationships.


A recurring idea, thought or



Repetitive behavior performed according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion


Cognitive therapy

Behavioral therapy


Anxiety DisordersObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
attention disorders attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adhd

A spectrum of difficulties in controlling motion and sustaining attention, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility.

Potential Complications

Academic difficulties, poor concentration, difficulty making decisions, relationship difficulties, sleep problems, increased risk of depression, anxiety disorders and substance abuse.








Attention DisordersAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
suicide prevention
Suicide Prevention
  • Encourage your friend to talk.
  • Don’t offer trite reassurances.
  • Suggest solutions or alternatives to problems.
  • Don’t be afraid to ask whether your friend has considered suicide.
  • Don’t think that people who talk about killing themselves never carry out their threat.
surviving and thriving
Surviving and Thriving
  • Accept yourself.
  • Respect yourself.
  • Trust yourself.
  • Love yourself.
  • Stretch yourself.
  • Look at challenges as opportunities for personal growth.
  • Think not only where but also who you want to be a decade from now.