Galician. Origins of the Galician Language. Galician shares its origins and early development with Portuguese, as the language Galician-Portuguese . 25BC Establishment of Roman Empire. Introduction of Latin Language and Roman law. Gallaecia Province. Latinisation of the Peninsula.
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Galician shares its origins and early development with Portuguese, as the language Galician-Portuguese.
25BC Establishment of Roman Empire. Introduction of Latin Language and Roman law. Gallaecia Province.
Latinisation of the Peninsula.
Local communities in eastern and southern provinces quickly adopted Vulgar Latin but the process of acculturation and assimilation took place and a much slower pace in the western and northern provinces.
3rdcentury AD – collapse of Roman control and invasions of the Germanic tribes of Swabians, who transformed parts of Roman Gallaeciainto an independent kingdom.
711 AD – Islamic conquest.
Galicia had a newly found status as an important Christian Pilgrimage which is why it began to experience more than minimal contact with the outside world.
1179 – Pope officially recognised the independent kingdom of Portugal.
Integration into the Kingdom of Castile marked the beginning of the end of Galicia’s cultural and linguistic isolation.
Events of 14th century. Civil war between son of Alfonso XI of Castille (Enrique Trastamara) and his half brother, Pedro the Cruel.
Upper echelons of society attempted to establish Castilian as the official language.
PartidoGaleguista created in 1931
Monolingual Galician in rural areas
State control over mass media and education
Exile activity abroad
Galicia Emigrante magazine 1954-1959
Radio show 1954-1971
Galician used publicly in 1949
Editorial Galixia founded in 1950 by Ramón Piñeiro
In the 1960s
Unión do PoboGalegoin 1964
Civil protest poetry- Manuel María’sTerra Cha
More relaxed attitude towards the Galician language.
1963- Historiadaliteraturagalegacontemporáneaby CaballoCalero
1965- Gramatica elemental del gallegocomún
1971- Institutoda Lingua Galega (ILG)
Official language for public administration and public entities in Galicia.
Can also be used in the judicial system
Children can receive their nursery education in either language
Compulsory subject in all schools
University education can be in either Castilian or Galician
Compulsory aspect of teacher training
Promotes dubbing, subtitling and the production of plays, films and literature in Galician.
Makes the Real Academia Gallega responsible for maintenance of the language.
1989 and 1990 Congresses calling for support from the Xunta in promoting Galician.
Galician currently has no recognised status in the Franxa Exterior.
"Law of Linguistic Normalization", Ley 3/1983, 15 June 1983)
first time since the introduction of mass education that a generation has attended school in Galician.
Reinforced the sociolinguistic status as well as the role it has to play alongside Castilian, as a viable language of administration.
Concerning linguistic rights in Galicia:
Article 1. Galician is the autochthonous language of Galicia. Everyone has the right to know it and the right to use it.
Article 2. the public authorities of Galicia will guarantee the normal use of Galician or of Castilian, as the official languages of the self-governing region.
Article 3. the public authorities of Galicia will adopt the necessary measurements to ensure that no one is discriminated against because of their language. As far as the right to employ their own language is concerned, citizens will have the recourse to the law courts and tribunals in order to obtain legal protection.
to re-establish Galician as foremost symbol of ethnic identity at the very least from a socio-political and socio-linguistic perspective.
to reintroduce language to those who had stopped using it, or only used it in very restricted contexts
hoped to create the situation where pupils would be competent in Galician so that within schools the status of Castilian would be limited to that of study.
Article12:1 Galician, as the autochthonous language of Galicia, is also the official language of the education system at all levels.
Article 13 Children have the right to receive their pre-school and primary education in their mother tongue.
Article 14 Made the study of Galician mandatory at all compulsory education levels.
Title IV, Article 18: Galician will be the customary language used in radio and television and in other means of public communication liable to administration by or competition from business concerns of the self governing community.
TITLE II regarding legislation relating to language use by governmental institutions in communication with the general public.
Title II Article 6:1 Citizens have the right to demand the use of Galician, both in spoken and written communications with public service authorities within the confines of self governing community.
Decrees prior: decreto257/1995 and decreto 66/1997 were precursors to Plan Xeral or PNL. In English, General Plan for the linguistic normalization of the Galician language.
Eg. Article 4. At pre school level and in first years of primary school, teachers will use in class the mother tongue that prevails among the pupils.
General objectives of Plano Xeral de NormalizacionLinguistica (PNL) makes attempt to disengage from political deliberations:
To implement series of measure that will provide for a recovery in no. of speakers
Generate more respect for the language
Encourage speakers to use it naturally without restrictions
Should not be used as political tool or for political bias
Incorporates many suggestions from council for Galician culture and main objective is to overturn age old inferiority complex. This is to be achieved by:
Introducing changes in social behaviour of speakers
eg. Encouraging people to use Galician outside their intragroup environment, in other more influential sectors of society and persuading parents to pass on their spoken Galician to their children.
Suggested pupils in compulsory education should receive at least 50% of their instruction in Galician.
Public radio station, Radio Gallega introduced in 1980’s.
Regional tv channel, TVG (television galega)
Huge effort to promote literatacy since 1980’s
Galicia drama centre created in 1980’s (centrodramaticogalego)
Local authorities and public services.
Lei 5/1988 reinforced stipulations from lei 1983 regarding Galician as official language of use by local government. Oral and written purposes in Xunta offices and debates carried out in G.
Official documents tend to be in both languages.
Lei 1983 says Place names should be in Galician.
PNL adds that business and commerce should be encouraged to promote it in workforce, church, tourism and social services.
En 1983 se aprueba la Ley autonómica 1/1983,reguladora de la Xunta y de su Presidente.
1. 1978 Spanish Constitution
2. 1981, Article 5 of the Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia
3. June 1983 – Lei de NormalizaciónLinguística de Galicia
4. September 2004 – the Plan Xeral de Normalizaciónda Lingua Galega
Decree 79/2010 - establishes the language of each subject in primary and secondary education, and allows parents to decide the main language of education within the classroom.
Triggered an adverse reaction among Galician civil society.
Galician speakers are optimistic about the future of their language
While they almost unanimously believe that bilingualism will continue to prevail in Galicia, over half of them take the view that the use of Galician will increase.
Almost 90% consider Galician to be as useful as Castilian.
Despite all improvements in Administration, Education and Mass Media there was not an increase in the oral use of Galician, but a general rise of Castilian speakers.
Beswick, Jaine, Regional nationalism in Spain : language use and ethnic identity in Galicia (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2007)