Language Policies and Language Ideologies: Comparisons between the Irish and Galician Contexts. Dr Bernadette O’Rourke, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh B.M.A.O’Rourke@hw.ac.uk February 2008. Irish and Galician Contexts. Linguistic Differences. Irish - Celtic English - Germanic.
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Dr Bernadette O’Rourke, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
1851 - 5% monolingual
1922 - 18%
2006 - 43 %
5 - 10 %
1877 - 88% monolingual
2001 - 91%
68 %Demographic Differences
Official language of State
Privileged - ‘state ostensibly dedicated to its protection ’ (Fishman 1991)
Co-official Autonomous Community of Galicia
Spanish official language of Spanish State
Galician ‘right’, Castilian ‘obligation’Socio-political Differences
Laws, regulations, customary practicesWhat does language policy look like?
…the Irish language as the national language is the first official language … the English language is recognised as a second official language
Article 3 of Spanish Constitution
1922-1950s – momentum
1950-1970 – stagnation
1970-present – laissez faire
…language policy in relation to Irish is at a critical stage (Ó Riagáin 2001)
1980-2004 – laissez faire
2005-present - momentumTrends in Top-down Language Policy in Ireland and Galicia